Connect with us

News & Analysis

International Frameworks for Multinational Corporations and Environment

Published

on

By Dr. Kariuki Muigua, PhD (Leading Environmental Law Scholar, Policy Advisor, Natural Resources Lawyer and Dispute Resolution Expert from Kenya), Winner of Kenya’s ADR Practitioner of the Year 2021*

The international framework which is relevant in regulating the multinational corporations’ exploitation of international resources include legal and institutional framework under United Nations including United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and United Nations Global Compact, World Trade Organization (WTO) including the Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMs) and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs). They also include the Guidelines under the auspices of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

The Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMs), seeks to promote the expansion and progressive liberalization of world trade and to facilitate investment across international frontiers so as to increase the economic growth of all trading partners, particularly developing country Members. The agreement, thus, takes note of the vulnerable position which most developing countries usually are at and seeks to alleviate the situation in these countries. The agreement further provides for the importance of ensuring that transactions between corporations and states are done in a manner that is transparent.

The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs), seeks to reduce distortions and impediments to international trade, and takes into account the need to promote effective and adequate protection of intellectual property rights, and to ensure that measures and procedures to enforce intellectual property rights do not themselves become barriers to legitimate trade. TRIPS plays a useful role in the protection of intellectual property rights. However, it has been a subject of criticism in many African countries as it largely embodies western standards in I.P. Therefore, the agreement does not offer much protection especially to traditional knowledge, which is an important form of intellectual property in Africa.

The Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, seeks to ensure that States establish mechanisms to ensure that parties to international business transactions who engage in corrupt practices are held liable for these actions. Each contracting party must thus take such measures as may be necessary, in accordance with its legal principles, to establish the liability of legal persons for the bribery of a foreign public official. This Convention has recognized that corruption plays a big role in illegal transactions and corrupt practices which are usually done at the expense of the governed and has sought to ensure that these entities are held accountable.

This Convention could be very useful in ensuring that cases of corruption by MNCs often reported in developing countries are effectively dealt with, so as to ensure that the proceeds of natural resource exploitation benefit the locals. In this regard, institutions have to be established which will ensure that the MNCs are held to account for their actions. The Convention has realized the importance of good governance in the running of MNCs and the need to ensure accountability. Accountability and transparency are said to be related principles which ensure good governance. In this regard, accountability mechanisms ensure that oversight is exercised over the actions of various entities. The broad aim of oversight is to ensure that initiatives by the government meet their planned objectives, respond to the needs of the citizenry and contribute to better governance and the reduction of poverty.

The OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises (the Guidelines) are recommendations addressed by governments to multinational enterprises. They provide voluntary principles and standards for responsible business conduct consistent with applicable laws. The Guidelines aim to ensure that the operations of these enterprises are in harmony with government policies and ensure that confidence is built among the societies amongst whom these enterprises operate. The Guidelines are part of the OECD Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises, the other elements of which, relate to national treatment, conflicting requirements on enterprises, and international investment incentives and disincentives. They apply to multinational enterprises (MNEs) in all sectors, wherever they operate.

Enterprises should contribute to sustainable development, respect human rights, abstain from improper involvement in local political activities and refrain from retaliating against workers who report practices that contravene the law, the Guidelines or the enterprise’s policies. Further, they should conduct due diligence to avoid being involved in adverse impacts on matters covered by the Guidelines. These entities are also to endeavor to ensure that they take into consideration the views of members of the public in the governance process. All these initiatives relate to inclusion of democratic principles in the governance of MNCs. Democratic governance of MNCs is important in ensuring that there are increased levels of economic growth. The common aim of the governments adhering to the Guidelines is to encourage the positive contributions that multinational enterprises can make to economic, environmental and social progress and to minimize the difficulties to which their various operations may give rise.

The OECD Principles of Corporate Governance are intended to assist OECD and non-OECD governments in their efforts to evaluate and improve the legal, institutional and regulatory framework for corporate governance in their countries. It seeks to provide guidance and suggestions for stock exchanges, investors, corporations, and other parties that have a role in the process of developing good corporate governance. The Principles are of importance to both traded and non-traded companies and they represent a common basis that OECD member countries consider essential for the development of good governance practices.

The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) helps States cooperate to achieve agreed environmental priorities, and supports efforts to develop, implement and enforce new international environmental laws and standards. UNEP observes that to achieve their environmental commitments and goals, States need strong legislative, political and judicial systems. To promote this, UNEP seeks to use its expertise in environmental policy and law to help States further develop these institutions, and enhance their ability to effectively participate in international negotiations. In this regard, therefore, Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) have been formulated and they are driven at formulating guidelines to states on how to deal with transboundary hazards. Despite the fact that these guidelines are in existence, practice has shown widespread occurrence of non-compliance by states and non-enforcement with respect to many MEAs.

The United Nations Global Compact is a call to companies everywhere to voluntarily align their operations and strategies with ten universally accepted principles in the areas of human rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption, and to take action in support of UN goals and issues. The principles seek to guide the manner in which businesses are to operate and it seeks to ensure that these entities respect human rights in their operations. The UN Global Compact has largely adopted a voluntary approach to sustainability and currently has over 12,000 signatories from business and key stakeholder groups based in 145 countries.

The OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations, provides guidance on the application of the “arm’s length principle,” which is the international consensus on transfer pricing, i.e. on the valuation, for tax purposes, of cross-border transactions between associated enterprises. In a global economy, where multinational enterprises (MNEs) play a prominent role, transfer pricing is high on the agenda of tax administrators and taxpayers alike, and governments need to ensure that the taxable profits of MNEs are not artificially shifted out of their jurisdictions and that the tax base reported by MNEs in their respective countries reflect the economic activity undertaken therein.

The existing international framework governing multinational corporations is, however, seen to be inadequate as the international framework largely relies on implementation by States. The problem is particularly seen where there are violations within developing countries. These countries are usually not in a position to regulate the MNCs which operate within their countries since states have trans-border limitations and thus not in a position to effectively regulate the operations of the MNCs. States have also been complacent in ensuring that the MNCs are held to account for their actions. States are, thus, supposed to ensure that international norms that have been established are domesticated and ensure that any violations arising from the operations of these corporations are redressed.

 

*This is article is an extract from an article by Dr. Kariuki Muigua, PhD,Kenya’s ADR Practitioner of the Year 2021 (Nairobi Legal Awards): Muigua, K., “Multinational Corporations, Investment and Natural Resource Management in Kenya,” http://kmco.co.ke/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Multinational-Corporations-Investment-and-Natural-Resource-Management-in-Kenya-Kariuki-Muigua-November-2018.pdf. Dr. Kariuki Muigua is Kenya’s foremost Environmental Law and Natural Resources Lawyer and Scholar, Sustainable Development Advocate and Conflict Management Expert. Dr. Kariuki Muigua is a Senior Lecturer of Environmental Law and Dispute resolution at the University of Nairobi School of Law and The Center for Advanced Studies in Environmental Law and Policy (CASELAP). He has published numerous books and articles on Environmental Law, Environmental Justice Conflict Management, Alternative Dispute Resolution and Sustainable Development. Dr. Muigua is also a Chartered Arbitrator, an Accredited Mediator, the Africa Trustee of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators and the Managing Partner of Kariuki Muigua & Co. Advocates. Dr. Muigua is recognized as one of the leading lawyers and dispute resolution experts by the Chambers Global Guide 2021. 

References

Africa Europe Faith & Justice Network (AEFJN), The Plundering of Africa’s Natural Resources, available at http://www.aefjn.org/tl_files/aefjnfiles/publications/Fact%20Sheets%20EN/120521-NatResources-Factsheet-eng.pdf [Accessed on 16/11/2018].

Ako, R. & Uddin, N., ‘Good governance and resources management in Africa,’ in Botchway, F. (ed), Natural Resource Investment and Africa’s Development, (Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc., 2011), p. 25.

Asiedu, E., ‘Foreign direct investment, natural resources and institutions,’ Working Paper, March 2013, p. 2.

Batware, B., ‘Resource Conflicts: The Role of Multinational Corporations in the Democratic Republic of Congo,’ (MA Peace and Conflict Studies, EPU, 2011), available at http://acuns.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/RoleofMultinationalCorporations.pdf [Accessed on 16/11/2018 ].

Convention On Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, Preamble. 47 Dec. 18, 1997, 37 I.L.M. 1 (1998), adopted At Paris On November 21, 1997, by a Conference Held Under The Auspices Of The Organization For Economic Cooperation And Development (OECD). Convention Signed In Paris on December 17, 1997, By the United States and 32 other Nations, adopted by the Negotiating Conference on 21 November, 1997.

Cortec Mining Kenya Limited, Cortec (Pty) Limited and Stirling Capital Limited v. Republic of Kenya ICSID Case No. ARB/15/29.

Cronin, R., et al, (eds), ‘Exploiting Natural Resources: Growth, Instability, and Conflict in the Middle East and Asia,’ Natural Resources and the Development-Environment Dilemma, 2009, p. 72.

Deva, S., “Human Rights Violations by Multinational Corporations and International Law: Where from Here?” Connecticut Journal of International Law, Vol. 19, 2003, pp. 1-57.

Duce, M. & Espana, B., ‘Definitions of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): a methodological note,’ available at http://bis.hasbeenforeclosed.com/publ/cgfs22bde3.pdf [Accessed 16/11/2018].

Ezekiel, A., “The application of international criminal law to resource exploitation: Ituri, Democratic Republic of the Congo,” Natural Resources Journal (2007): 225-245.

Helleiner, G.K., “The role of multinational corporations in the less developed countries’ trade in technology,” World Development 3, no. 4 (1975): 161-189.

H.M Revenue & Customs, INTM412040-Transfer pricing: legislation: rules: the arm’s length principle, available at http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/manuals/intmanual/intm412040.htm [Accessed on 16/11/2018].

Kojima, K., ‘A Macroeconomic Approach to Direct Foreign Investment,’ Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, June 1973, 3.

Langdon, S., “Multinational corporations, taste transfer and underdevelopment: A case study from Kenya,” Review of African Political Economy 2, no. 2 (1975): 12-35.

Mello, R., ‘Foreign direct investment-led growth: evidence from time series and panel data,’ Oxford Economic Papers, No. 51, pp.133-151, p. 135, (Oxford University Press, 1999).

Neumayer, E., Multilateral Environmental Agreements, Trade and Development: Issues and Policy Options Concerning Compliance and Enforcement, A report for the Consumer Unity & Trust Society Jaipur, India, available at http://www.lse.ac.uk/geographyandenvironment/whoswho/profiles/ neumayer/pdf/cuts.pdf[Access ed on 16/11/2018].

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, 27, June, 2000.

OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital (usually referred to as the OECD Model Treaty or Model Convention).

OECD (2010), OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations 2010, OECD Publishing, available at http://www.oecdilibrary.org/taxation/oecd-transfer-pricing-guidelines-for-multinational-enterprises-and-taxadministrations-2010_tpg-2010-en [Accessed on 16/11/2018].

Patrick, S.M., “Why Natural Resources Are a Curse on Developing Countries and How to Fix It.” Available at The Atlantic. < http://www. theatlantic. com/international/archive/2012/04/whynaturalresources-are-a-curse-on-developing-countries-and-how-to-fix-it/256508/>, [Accessed on 16/11/2018].

Pérez, R.T., “Structural Problems and Changes in Cuba’s Economic Model,” In No More Free Lunch, pp. 5-22. Springer, Cham, 2014.

Stiglitz, J., “Resource Rich, Cash Poor.” Slate, August 12 (2012). Available at https://slate.com/business/2012/08/why-resource-rich-countries-usually-end-uppoor.html [Accessed on 16/11/2018].

TRIPS Agreement, Annex 1C of the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, signed in Marrakesh, Morocco on 15 April 1994.

United Nations Expert Group Meeting on ‘Natural Resources and Conflict in Africa: Transforming a Peace Liability into a Peace Asset,’ Conference Report, 17-19 June 2006, Cairo, Egypt. Organized by the Office of the Special Adviser on Africa (OSAA) in cooperation with the Government of Egypt.

United Nations Global Compact, Background: UN Global Compact and Leaders Summit 2013, About The UN Global Compact, available at http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/about_the_gc/UNGC_Leaders_Summit2013_Fact%20She et.pdf [Accessed on 16/11/2018].

News & Analysis

Review: Journal of Conflict Management and Sustainable Development, Vol. 9, No. 1

Published

on

By

The Journal of Conflict Management and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, Issue No. 1, which is edited by and published by Dr. Kariuki Muigua, PhD is out and stays true to the reputation of the journal in providing a platform for scholarly debate on thematic areas in the fields of Conflict Management and Sustainable Development. The current issue published in September 2022 covers diverse topics including Resolving Oil and Gas Disputes in Africa; National Environment Tribunal, Sustainable Development and Access to Justice in Kenya; Protection of Cultural Heritage During War; The Role of Water in the attainment of Sustainable Development in Kenya; Property Rights in Human Biological Materials in Kenya; Nurturing our Wetlands for Biodiversity Conservation; Investor-State Dispute Resolution in a Fast-Paced World; Status of Participation of Women in Mediation; Business of Climate Change and Critical Analysis of World Trade Organization’s Most-Favored Nation (MFN) Treatment.

Dr. Wilfred A. Mutubwa and Eunice Njeri Ng’ang’a in “Resolving Oil and Gas Disputes in an Integrating Africa: An Appraisal of the Role of Regional Arbitration Centres” explore the nature of disputes in the realm of oil and gas in Africa taking a look into the recent continental and sub-regional developments in a bid to establish regional integration. Additionally, it tests the limits of intra-African trade and dispute resolution and the imperatives for the African regional courts and arbitration centres. In “National Environment Tribunal, Sustainable Development and Access to Justice in Kenya,” Dr. Kariuki Muigua discusses the role played by the National Environment Tribunal (NET) in promoting access to justice and enhancing the principles of sustainable development in Kenya. The paper also highlights challenges facing the tribunal and proposes recommendations towards enhancing the effectiveness of the tribunal.

Dr. Kenneth Wyne Mutuma in “Protecting Cultural Heritage in Times of War: A Case for History,” argues that cultural heritage is at the heart of human existence and its preservation even in times of war is sacrosanct. It concludes that it is thus critical for states to take positive and tangible steps to ensure environmental conservation and protection during war within the ambit of the existing international legal framework. In “The Role of Water in the attainment of Sustainable Development in Kenya,” Jack Shivugu critically evaluates the role of water in the attainment of sustainable development in Kenya and argues water plays a critical role in the attainment of the sustainable development goals both in Kenya and at the global stage. The paper interrogates some of the water and Sustainable Development concerns in Kenya including water pollution, water scarcity and climate change and suggests practical ways to enhance the role of water in the Sustainable Development agenda.

Dr. Paul Ogendi in “Collective Property Rights in Human Biological Materials in Kenya,” reflects on property rights in relation to human biological materials obtained from research participants participating in genomic research. He argues that property rights are crucial in genomic research because they can help avoid exploitation or abuse of such precious material by researchers. In “Nurturing our Wetlands for Biodiversity Conservation,” Dr. Kariuki Muigua notes that Wetlands have a vital role in not just delivering ecological services to meet human needs, but also in biodiversity conservation. Wetlands are vital habitat sites for many species and a source of water, both of which contribute to biodiversity protection. The paper examines the role of wetlands in biodiversity conservation and how these wetland resources might be managed to improve biodiversity conservation.

Oseko Louis D. Obure in “Investor-State Dispute Resolution in a Fast-Paced World,” preponderance of disputes between States or States and Investors created need for a robust, effective, and efficient mechanisms not only for the resolution of these disputes but also their prevention. He notes that developing states lead in being parties to Investor-State Disputes (ISD) particularly as respondents. He proceeds to conceptualize and problematize investor-state disputes resolution in a fast-paced world. Lilian N.S. Kong’ani and Dr. Kariuki Muigua in “Status of Participation of Women in Mediation: A case Study of Development Project Conflict in Olkaria IV, Kenya” review the status of participation of women in mediation to resolve conflicts between KenGen and the community. The paper demonstrates a need for further democratization of the mediation processes to cater for more participation of women to enhance the mediation results and offer more sustainable resolutions.

Felix Otieno Odhiambo and Melinda Lorenda Mueni in “The Business of Climate Change: An Analysis of Carbon Trading in Kenya analyses the business of carbon trading in the context of Kenya’s legal framework. The article examines the legal framework that underpins climate change into the Kenyan legal system and provides an exposition of the concept of carbon trading and its various forms. Michael Okello, in “Critical Analysis of World Trade Organisation’s Most-Favored Nation (MFN) Treatment: Prospects, Challenges and Emerging Trends in the 21st Century,” highlights the rationale behind MFN treatment and also restates the vision of multilateral trade to achieve equitable and special interventions with respect to trade in goods, services and trade related intellectual property rights in the affected states.

Continue Reading

News & Analysis

Dr. Kariuki Muigua: The Making of Top Arbitrator in Africa

Published

on

By

African Arbitrator of the Year 2022 Dr. Kariuki Muigua's Journey to the Top of ADR in Africa is a Case Study of Excellence

The journey of Dr. Kariuki Muigua to becoming the African Arbitrator of the Year 2022 has seen him painstakingly and consistently research, teach, write, edit, publish, train, mentor and practice arbitration, alternative dispute resolution (ADR), conflict management and dispute resolution for the last 30 years with excellence as a leading lawyer, authoritative scholar and ADR expert. Today, Dr. Kariuki Muigua, Phd, C.Arb is a Chartered Arbitrator and the African Trustee of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators and the African Arbitrator of the Year 2022. He is an advocate of 33 years standing and the Managing Partner of Kariuki Muigua & Co. Advocates. He is also the author of the Leading Textbooks on ADR, Mediation and Arbitration including the seminal Settling Disputes Through Arbitration in Kenya, now in 4th Edition. Dr. Kariuki Muigua is ranked at Band 1 by Chambers & Partners among the leading Arbitrators in Kenya noting that “He has been involved in several ground-breaking arbitrations,” “has an astute understanding of arbitration” and “is respected for litigation.”

Dr. Kariuki Muigua is also both the founder, publisher and editor of Africa’s leading Conflict Management Journal as well as one of the PhD Academics who majored in resolution of Natural Resources and Environmental Conflicts using mediation. Dr. Kariuki Muigua is also a leading author in the area of conflict management and has published several books on the topic including Resolving Conflicts through Mediation and Natural Resources and Environmental Justice in Kenya. It is these exploits that have left many of his admirers convinced that his next stop would be Professorship and admission to the Rank of Senior Counsel.

As an ADR Practitioner, Dr. Muigua was declared the first ever winner of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (Kenya Branch) ADR Lifetime Achievement Award, the highest honour given by the Institute to one member every year for his immense contribution to the growth of practice, research and scholarship of ADR in Kenya and across Africa. The award came barely a week after Dr. Muigua had won the coveted Law Society of Kenya ADR Practitioner of the Year Award at the 4th Edition of the Nairobi Legal Awards. LSK recognized Dr. Muigua for his outstanding practice in ADR and especially arbitration and his role as mentor to many lawyers venturing into the area. Dr. Kariuki Muigua was also awarded the ADR Publisher of the Year for his scholarship, authorship and editorship of leading research and publications on ADR in Africa including the Journal of Conflict Management and Sustainable Development and Alternative Dispute Resolution, the Official Journal of the CIArb (Kenya).

The tripartite awards have been hailed by many of Dr. Kariuki Muigua’s peers in the ADR and Arbitration fraternity as a fitting tributes to his made immense contribution to mainstreaming of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) and especially arbitration as way of resolving disputes in Kenya, East Africa and across Africa in the last two (2) decades. Indeed, starting in 2002 when Dr. Muigua took the Special Member Course leading to membership to the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (MCIArb), Dr. Muigua one of the staunchest advocates of ADR in Africa in addition to becoming the foremost intellectual voice shaping ADR practitioners and scholars of the future. The contribution of Dr. Kariuki Muigua to the alternative dispute resolution (ADR) sector has taken many shapes and forms including as a practitioner, leader, policy maker, scholar, author, trainer, mentor and trailblazer among others.

Dr. Muigua is a leading Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) practitioner in Kenya, Africa and the world at large who has been recognized nationally and globally by peers. The world leading peer-reviewed lawyers’ directory, Chambers and Partners, rates Dr. Kariuki Muigua as one of the best alternative dispute resolution experts in the country. It describes as ‘a highly respected arbitrator and mediator with a sterling background in commercial and constitutional cases, as well as matters relating to the environment and natural resources.’ The most recent ranking adds: “Kariuki Muigua of Kariuki Muigua & Co is held in high regard by market commentators for his role in the Kenyan arbitration sphere. He possesses stellar experience in commercial and constitutional disputes, as well as environmental matters and those relating to the extractive industries. In addition to being “a big noise in the arbitration association,” he is widely recognized for his academic work.”

Dr. Muigua has served in many panels as an arbitrator appointed by the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (CIArb)-Kenya, the Law Society of Kenya (LSK), the Nairobi Centre for International Arbitration (NCIA), the London Court Of International Arbitration (LCIA) and the International Court of Arbitration under the auspices of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) on several occasions as a sole arbitrator and a member of arbitral tribunals in arbitrations involving commercial disputes. He has vast experience and expertise in adjudication and has sat as both as a panel member and a chairperson in various adjudication Boards both locally and internationally. He is also an accomplished mediator and has successfully presided over numerous matters both as a private mediator and a court appointed mediator under the Court-Annexed Mediation program in Kenya.

Dr Muigua was elected (unopposed) to the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (CIArb) Board of Trustees as the Regional Trustee for Africa, for the term beginning 1 January 2019. Previously, he served as the Branch Chairman of CIArb-Kenya from 2012 to 2015. He also served CIArb as Member and past Chairperson of the Sub-committee on Information Technology (IT), CIArb and as Member of the Legal Committee Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (CIArb) – Kenya chapter. He is a Fellow of Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (CIArb)-Kenya chapter. He is also a member of the London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA), Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (UK) and Kenya Branch. He is also a Member of Kigali International Arbitration Centre (KIAC) and Nairobi Centre for International Arbitration (NCIA). For his contributions, he was awarded Chartered Institute of Arbitrators Chairman’s Medal with a citation for exemplary service in December, 2015.

In policy-making, Dr. Kariuki Muigua is currently a member of the National Steering Committee for Formulation of the Alternative Dispute Resolution Policy representing the Academia since 2020. The team is providing guidance and overseeing the process for formulation of a national policy and institutional framework on Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) in Kenya. He has also served as Member of the Meditation Accreditation Committee Panel of Mediators Accredited for Commercial Mediation under the Judiciary of Kenya. Recently, he led negotiations that achieved partnership with Chartered Institute of Arbitrators UK on GPR 625 (International Commercial Arbitration) for University of Nairobi LLM students to achieve membership status without further tests, 2020 to 2023.

On ADR Scholarship, Dr. Muigua is the author of the leading textbook on Arbitration in Kenya, namely, Settling Disputes through Arbitration in Kenya, now in its 4th Edition (2022) and available for free download, Alternative Dispute Resolution and Access to Justice in Kenya (2015) and Resolving Conflicts through Mediation in Kenya (2013). He has been cited hundreds of times as an ADR Scholar, contributed at least 3 chapters of published books, authored dozens of peer-reviewed articles in the areas of arbitration and alternative dispute resolution and presented over two dozen papers on ADR in diverse fora. Dr. Muigua has also facilitated numerous trainings, workshops and conferences on ADR. He has supervised and supervised at least two (2) completed PhD thesis on ADR, Dozens of Masters Thesis and is supervising three (3) PhDs in the area as a lecturer and mentor in ADR practice and scholarship. Dr. Muigua is a lecturer in International Commercial Arbitration at the University of Nairobi and tutor, trainer and assessor at the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (Kenya Branch).

Dr. Kariuki Muigua is a Chartered Arbitrator (since January 2015) and Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (since October 2010) and Member of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (since 2002). He holds a Diploma in Arbitration (2012) and became Accredited as a Mediator by the Mediation Training Institute in 2015. He is also a renowned consultant on ADR Law and Practice and has authored reports whose recommendations had far reaching impact on the sector. As a professional who strives to attain excellence in the legal and ADR arenas, Dr. Muigua has gone out of his way to put ADR in the frontline as one of the leading modes of dispute resolution in Kenya, Africa and at global stage. Dr. Muigua is a holder of a Ph. D in law from the University of Nairobi and has widespread training and experience in both international and national commercial arbitration and mediation. Previously, he served as the chairperson, Department of Private Law of the University of Nairobi School of Law 2020-2021.

Continue Reading

News & Analysis

Overcoming Hindrances to International Commercial Arbitration in Kenya

Published

on

By

By Dr. Kariuki Muigua, PhD (Leading Environmental Law Scholar, Sustainable Development Policy Advisor, Natural Resources Lawyer and Dispute Resolution Expert from Kenya), The African Arbitrator of the Year 2022, Kenya’s ADR Practitioner of the Year 2021, CIArb (Kenya) Lifetime Achievement Award 2021 and ADR Publisher of the Year 2021*

In the face of globalisation, it is important that international trade and investment take place with minimal interference by territorial barriers such as unnecessary domestic courts’ intervention. It has been asserted that the settlement of disputes between parties to an international transaction, arbitration has clear advantages over litigation in national courts. The foreign court can be an alien environment for a businessman because of his unfamiliarity with the procedure which may be followed, the laws to be applied, and even the mentality of the foreign judges.

In contrast, with international commercial arbitration parties coming from different legal systems can provide for a procedure which is mutually acceptable. They can anticipate which law shall be applied: a particular law or even a lex mercatoria of a trade. They can also appoint a person of their choice having expert knowledge in the field. Thus, it is argued that these and other advantages are only potential until the necessary legal framework can be internationally secured, at least providing that the commitment to arbitrate is enforceable and that the arbitral decision can be executed in many countries, precluding the possibility that a national court review the merits of the decision.

There is a need to employ mechanisms that will help nurture and demonstrate Kenya to the outside world as a place with international commercial arbitrators with sufficient knowledge and expertise to be appointed to arbitrate international arbitrators. There is also the need to put in place adequate legal regimes and infrastructure for the efficient and effective organization and conduct of international commercial arbitration in Africa. This ranges from legislating comprehensive law on international commercial arbitration as well as setting up world class arbitration centres in Kenya to complement the Nairobi Centre for International Arbitration (NCIA).

There is also the Centre for Alternative Dispute Resolution (CADR) which is an initiative by the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators, Kenya and was incorporated in May, 2013. Its objective is to establish and maintain a regional Dispute Resolution Centre in the country. The CADR is a positive step towards nurturing international commercial arbitration in Kenya. This will afford the local international commercial arbitrators the fora to showcase their skills and expertise in international commercial arbitration and will also attract international clients from outside Africa. It has been noted that there should be basic minimum standards for international commercial arbitration centres or institutions. These include: modern arbitration rules; modern and efficient administrative and technological facilities; Security and safety of documents; Expertise within its staff; and some serious degree of permanence. There is a need to set up more regional centres for training of international commercial arbitrators in Africa and Kenya.

The Kenyan Chapter of Chartered Institute of Arbitrators trains arbitrators across Africa and has trained arbitrators in countries like Nigeria, Zambia, Uganda and even Malawi. Kenya can indeed play a pivotal role in nurturing international commercial arbitration, not only in Kenya but also across the African continent. There is also need for the existing institutions to seek collaboration with more international commercial arbitration institutions since this will work as an effective marketing tool for the exiting institutions. For instance, the Kenyan Chartered Institute of Arbitrators Branch maintains a close relationship with the International Law Institute (ILI) Kampala and the Centre for Africa Peace and Conflict Resolution (CAPCR) of California State University to conduct Courses in Mediation and other forms of ADR both locally and internationally.

There is need for all African centres and institutions to do the same to promote international commercial arbitration in Africa. The Kenyan law on arbitration appreciates the need to limit court intervention in arbitration to a basic minimum. It has been argued that the relationship between the courts and the arbitral process can be made much closer, both practically and psychologically. The psychological link can be strengthened by encouraging all or at least a good number of the commercial judges and advocates to take up training in arbitration and consequently ensuring that they benefit from having prior experience of arbitration either as representative advocates or actual arbitrators. This will subsequently boost the confidence of foreigners in the African Arbitration institutions as well as the role of courts. Effective and reliable application of international commercial arbitration in Kenya has the capacity to encourage investors to carry on business with confidence knowing their disputes will be settled expeditiously.

In essence, there is need to develop a clear framework in Kenya within which international commercial arbitration can be further nurtured. There are arbitral institutions already in place in Kenya as highlighted in this paper. The presence of such institutions in the country points to an acceptance of alternative dispute resolution modes as well as the need to nurture the practice of international commercial arbitration other than exporting commercial disputes to foreign countries for settlement. With the right frameworks in place, Kenya indeed has the capacity to conduct successful international commercial arbitration. Nurturing international commercial arbitration in Kenya is a necessity whose time has come.

*This article is an extract from published article Nurturing International Commercial Arbitration in Kenya,” by Dr. Kariuki Muigua, PhD, the African Arbitrator of the Year 2022, Kenya’s ADR Practitioner of the Year 2021 (Nairobi Legal Awards), CIArb (Kenya) ADR Lifetime Achievement Award 2021 and ADR Publisher of the Year 2021. Dr. Kariuki Muigua is a Foremost Dispute Resolution Expert in Africa ranked among Top 6 Arbitrators in Kenya by Chambers and Partners, Leading Environmental Law and Natural Resources Lawyer and Scholar, Sustainable Development Advocate and Conflict Management Expert. Dr. Kariuki Muigua is a Senior Lecturer of Environmental Law and Dispute resolution at the University of Nairobi School of Law and The Center for Advanced Studies in Environmental Law and Policy (CASELAP). He has published numerous books and articles on Environmental Law, Environmental Justice Conflict Management, Alternative Dispute Resolution and Sustainable Development. Dr. Muigua is also a Chartered Arbitrator, an Accredited Mediator, the Africa Trustee of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators and the Managing Partner of Kariuki Muigua & Co. Advocates. Dr. Muigua is recognized as one of the leading lawyers and dispute resolution experts by the Chambers Global Guide 2022 and is ranked among the Top 5 Arbitrators in Kenya in 2022 by The Lawyer Africa. 

References

Muigua, K., “Nurturing International Commercial Arbitration in Kenya,” Available at: http://kmco.co.ke/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/Nurturing-International-Commercial-Arbitration-in-Kenya.pdf (accessed 15 July 2022).

Continue Reading

Trending