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Proposals for Enhancing Environmental Enforcement and Compliance in Kenya



By Dr. Kariuki Muigua, PhD (Leading Environmental Law Scholar, Policy Advisor, Natural Resources Lawyer and Dispute Resolution Expert from Kenya), Winner of Kenya’s ADR Practitioner of the Year 2021, ADR Publisher of the Year 2021 and CIArb (Kenya) Lifetime Achievement Award 2021.*

Environmental protection is inherent in the concept of sustainable development, as is a focus on the sources of environmental problems rather than the symptoms. While the existing laws seem to put great emphasis on enforcement of environmental responsibilities, there is little evidence of actual promotion of deterrence under the current environmental liability regime in Kenya. Kenya Vision 2030 is the long-term development blueprint for the country, with various pillars that include environmental, economic, social and political pillars. The social pillar seeks to build a just and cohesive society that enjoys equitable social development in a clean and secure environment.

The Blueprint seeks to ensure that Kenya becomes a nation that has a clean, secure and sustainable environment by 2030, to be achieved through: promoting environmental conservation to better support the economic pillar’s aspirations; improving pollution and waste management through the application of the right economic incentives; commissioning of public-private partnerships (PPPs) for improved efficiency in water and sanitation delivery; enhancing disaster preparedness in all disaster-prone areas and improving the capacity for adaptation to global climatic change. Proper apportionment of environmental liability in the country will go a long way in ensuring that all stakeholders, both public and private play their role in achieving sustainable development agenda.

Investing in compliance and enforcement of environmental laws benefits the public by securing a healthier and safer environment for themselves and their children. It also benefits individuals, firms and others in the regulated community by ensuring a level playing field governed by clear rules applied in a fair and consistent manner. Strengthening environmental compliance and enforcement requires renewed efforts by individuals and institutions everywhere. Government officials, particularly inspectors, investigators, and prosecutors, must exercise public authority in trust for all of their citizens according to the standards of good governance and with a view to protecting and improving public well-being and conserving the environment.

The judiciary has a fundamental contribution to make in upholding the rule of law and ensuring that national and international laws are interpreted and applied fairly, efficiently, and effectively. Courts also need to work closely with the public as a way of enhancing identification of activities that violate environmental laws as well as increasing the rate of enforcement and compliance with court decisions, by bodies and individuals. There is also need to sensitise the public on the dangers of environmental degradation through pollution, overstocking, over-exploitation of resources. Other professionals should be brought on board. These may be drawn from such fields as medical, agricultural, mining, amongst others. When people appreciate that the state of environmental health directly affects their livelihoods, it is possible to engage them in creation of a better environment that is clean and healthy as the first step towards improving their lives.

Concerted efforts from all the stakeholders, including the general public can ensure that the compliance and enforcement framework in place is used to promote and safeguard the right to clean and healthy environment as envisaged in the Constitution and environmental laws. The following are the three main proposals for enhancing environmental enforcement and compliance for sustainable development in Kenya:-

Encouraging Proactive Corporate Environmental Compliance

It has rightly been pointed out that virtually all companies face the possibility of environmental liability costs and as such, it is imperative for the management to make at a least a general estimate of their company’s potential future environmental liability be it from legally mandated cleanup of hazardous waste sites or from lawsuits involving consumers, employees, or communities. The gathered information, it is argued could be useful in the following ways: encourage defensive and prudent operations and waste reduction; improve manufacturing, waste disposal and shipping practices; negotiate and settle disputes with insurance carriers; influence regulators and public policy makers; determine suitable levels of financial resources; reassess corporate strategy and management practices (think green); articulate a comprehensive risk management program; improve public relations and public citizenship; and assess hidden risks in takeovers and acquisitions. It is advisable for companies and organisations to engage in proactive environmental risk management as part of their strategic plans in order to avoid costly environmental liability mistakes.

Due Diligence/Cultivating Environmental Ethics

Kenyans have a role to play in achieving the ideal of a clean and healthy environment. 124 There is need to cultivate a culture of respect for environment by all, without necessarily relying on courts for enforcing the same. The citizenry should be able to practice preventive measures while allowing the courts to come in only in cases of violation of environmental standards. Developing environmental ethics and consciousness can be enhanced through adopting participatory approaches to conservation and management of environment and its resources.  Dissemination of information and knowledge in meaningful forms can also enhance participation in decision-making and enhance appreciation of the best ways of protecting and conserving the environment.

There is, therefore, a need to encourage voluntary compliance with environmental regulations, by the general public. This can be achieved through creating public awareness on the impacts of unsustainable and environment-degrading production and social activities, while providing sustainable alternatives. Such awareness can include organizing public forums, use of media to disseminate information and environmental campaigns and introducing comprehensive and up-to date environmental studies in learning institutions, at all levels. Incentives and disincentives can also be offered to encourage people to discard unsustainable methods of production and other activities that contribute to the degradation of the environment. Environmental rules that reward environmental leadership, build on best practices, and ensure a level playing field are more likely to succeed in securing compliance.

Sustainable development efforts may not bear much if the country does not move beyond laws. There is need for educating the public on the subject, with emphasis on preventive and conservation measures. The same should include change of attitude by the general public. The current generation has a responsibility and an environmental liability to ensure that future (unborn) generations have their future guaranteed. This responsibility was affirmed in the case of Oposa et al. v. Fulgencio S. Factoran, Jr. et al (G.R. No. 101083) (199) where the Supreme Court of the Philippines stated that even though the right to a balanced and healthful ecology is under the Declaration of Principles and State Policies of the Constitution and not under the Bill of Rights, it does not follow that it is less important than any of the rights enumerated in the latter: “[it] concerns nothing less than self-preservation and self-perpetuation, the advancement of which may even be said to predate all governments and constitutions”.

The right is linked to the constitutional right to health, is “fundamental”, “constitutionalised”, “self-executing” and “judicially enforceable”. It imposes the correlative duty to refrain from impairing the environment. The court stated that the petitioners were able to file a class suit both for others of their generation and for succeeding generations as “the minors’ assertion of their right to a sound environment constitutes, at the same time, the performance of their obligation to ensure the protection of that right for the generations to come.” It is thus important to ensure that all persons are conscious of their responsibility and duty to future generations to eliminate environmental threats affecting life, health and the wellbeing of the generations to come in the spirit of intragenerational and intergenerational equity.

Environmental Insurance

Environmental insurance is one of the tools that is used in environmental management. However, EMCA does not have provisions touching on the same. In addition, Kenyan insurance firms are yet to popularise environmental insurance services. It is suggested that this is a service that they should take up especially in light of the sustainable development agenda. However, all is not lost as a few of the insurance providers have packages on environmental impairment liability, such as the AIG insurance whose package covers: third-party bodily injury; third-party property and environmental damage; and clean-up costs for pollution conditions, both on site or while migrating from site. Environmental law practitioners may also advise their clients on the possibility of taking up environmental liability insurance.

The closest that EMCA has in terms of state sponsored environmental insurance is the National Environment Restoration Fund, which is a state kitty meant to supplementary insurance for the mitigation of environmental degradation where the perpetrator is not identifiable or where exceptional circumstances require the Authority to intervene towards the control or mitigation of environmental degradation. There is a need to popularize environmental insurance in the country for both medium and huge companies to shield them against environmental liability which could turn out to be too costly. The basic considerations when buying environmental damage liability insurance have been summarized as follows: the nature and extent of the risk to be insured; the purposes the insurance is to serve; the available types of policies, scopes of coverage, deductibles, and prices; the extent to which the issues just noted are governed by mandatory governmental insurance requirements (i.e., where being used to satisfy federal or state financial responsibility requirements); the importance of disclosures in answers to the warranty questions in the application form; the extent to which the actual scope of coverage in various competing policies serves the insured’s purposes, given the nature and extent of the risks involved; the extent to which the rights of the insurance company under the policy may affect the client’s freedom to pursue the appropriate regulatory or public relations strategy after an environmentally damaging release; the advantages and disadvantages of self-insurance; and the need for close coordination between legal counsel, environmental managers, and those in charge of insurance for the client on all of these matters.


The environment should be accorded some right, independent of the human beings. Indeed, the Constitution of Kenya 2010 elevates the environment as worthy of protection by stating in the preamble that the People of Kenya are respectful of the environment, which is their heritage, and are determined to sustain it for the benefit of future generations. The constitutional recognition of this position in Kenya should give the law makers, courts and other stakeholders an incentive and clear authority to take strong action to protect the environment. Strengthening the environmental liability regime in Kenya is necessary in order to enable the country to have a clean and healthy environment and to achieve sustainable development.

*This article is an extract from the Article Strengthening the Environmental Liability Regime in Kenya for Sustainable Development, by Dr. Kariuki Muigua, PhD, Kenya’s ADR Practitioner of the Year 2021 (Nairobi Legal Awards), ADR Publisher of the Year 2021 and ADR Lifetime Achievement Award 2021 (CIArb Kenya). Dr. Kariuki Muigua is a foremost Environmental Law and Natural Resources Lawyer and Scholar, Sustainable Development Advocate and Conflict Management Expert in Kenya. Dr. Kariuki Muigua is a Senior Lecturer of Environmental Law and Dispute resolution at the University of Nairobi School of Law and The Center for Advanced Studies in Environmental Law and Policy (CASELAP). He has published numerous books and articles on Environmental Law, Environmental Justice Conflict Management, Alternative Dispute Resolution and Sustainable Development. Dr. Muigua is also a Chartered Arbitrator, an Accredited Mediator, the Africa Trustee of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators and the Managing Partner of Kariuki Muigua & Co. Advocates. Dr. Muigua is recognized among the top 5 leading lawyers and dispute resolution experts in Kenya by the Chambers Global Guide 2022.


Muigua, K., “Strengthening the Environmental Liability Regime in Kenya for Sustainable Development,” (2022) Journal of Conflict Management and Sustainable Development (JCMSD) 8(3), p. 1.

News & Analysis

Former KCB Company Secretary Sues Over Unlawful Dismissal




Former KCB Group Company Secretary Joseph Kamau Kania who has sued the Bank for Unlawful Dismissal

Former KCB Group Company Secretary Joseph Kamau Kania has sued the lender seeking reinstatement or be compensated for illegal sacking almost three years ago. Lawyer Kania was the KCB Group company secretary until restructuring of the lender in 2021 that saw some senior executives dropped.

Through the firm of Senior Counsel Wilfred Nderitu, Kamau wants the court to order KCB Group to unconditionally reinstate him to employment without altering any of the contractual terms until his retirement in December 2025.

In his court documents filed before Employment and Labour Relations Court, the career law banker seeks the court to declare the reorganization of the company structure a nullity and amounted to a violation of his fundamental right to fair labour practices as guaranteed in Article 41(1) of the Constitution. He further wants the court to declare that the position of Group Company Secretary did not at any time cease to exist within the KCB Group structure.

He further urged the Employment Court to declare that the recruitment and appointment of Bonnie Okumu, his former assistant, as the Group Company Secretary, in relation to the contemporaneous termination of his employment, was unprocedural, insufficient and inappropriate to infer a lawful termination of his employment.

“A declaration that the factual and legal circumstances of the Petitioner’s termination of employment were insufficient and inappropriate to infer a redundancy against him, and that any redundancy declared by the KCB Group in relation to him was therefore null, void and of no legal effect and amounted to a violation of his fundamental right to fair labour practices as guaranteed in Article 41(1) of the Constitution,” seeks lawyer Kamau.

Kamau says he was subjected to discriminatory practices by the KCB Bank Group in violation of his fundamental right to equality and freedom from discrimination as guaranteed in Article 27 of the Constitution and the termination of his employment was unfair, unjustified, illegal, null and void.

Lawyer Kamau further seeks the court to declare that the Non-Compete Clause in the 2016 Contract is unenforceable by the KCB Group as against him and is voidable by him as against the Bank ab initio, byreason of the termination of the Petitioner’s employment having been a violation of Articles 41(1) and 47(1) and (2) of the Constitution, and of the Employment Act.

He also wants the Employment Court to find that finding that KCB’s group legal representation by Messrs of Mohammed Muigai LLP Advocates law firm in respect of his claim for unlawful termination of employment resulted in a clear conflict of interest by reason of the fact that a Founding and Senior Partner at the said firm lawyer Mohammed Nyaoga is also the Chairman of the CBK’s Board of Directors.

“A Declaration that the circumstances of KCB’s legal representation by Messrs. Mohammed Muigai LLP Advocates resulted in a violation of the Petitioner’s fundamental right to have the employment dispute decided independently and impartially, as guaranteed in Article 50(1) of the Constitution,” seeks lawyer Kamau.

Kamau is seeking damages against both KCB Group and Central Bank of Kenya jointly and severally for the violation of his constitutional and fundamental right to fair labour practices.

He wants  further wants court to declare that CBK is liable to petitioner on account of its breach of statutory duty to effectively regulate KCB Group to ensure that KCB complied with the Central Bank of Kenya Prudential Guidelines and all other Laws, Rules, Codes and Standards, and that, as an issuer of securities, it complied with capital markets legislation.

Kamau through his lawyer Nderitu told the court that he was involved in Shareholder engagement in introducing the Group aide-mémoire that significantly improved the management of the Annual General Meetings, including obtaining approval without voting through the Memorandum and Articles of Association of Kenya Commercial Bank Limited among others.

He said that during his employment at KCB Bank Kenya and with the KCB Group, he initially worked well with former KCB CEO Joseph Oigara until 2016 when the CEO allegedly started sidelining him by removing the legal function from his reporting line.

He further claims he was transferred from the Group’s offices at Kencom House to its offices Upper Hill under the guise that the Petitioner was merely to support the KCB Group Board.

He adds that at that point his roles were given to Okumu for reasons that were not related to work demands.  He stated that Oigara at one time proposed that he should leave his role in the KCB Group and go and serve as the Company Secretary of the National Bank of Kenya Limited, a subsidiary of the Group, a suggestion which he disagreed with to Oigara’s utter annoyance.

Kamau stated that his work was thenceforth unfairly discredited, leading to his being taken through a disciplinary process whose intended outcome failed miserably, and the Petitioner was vindicated.

“More specifically, the Petitioner contends that the purported creation of a new organizational structure towards the end of 2020 was in fact Oigara’s orchestration targeted to remove certain individuals by requiring them to undergo interviews in the pretext that new roles were created, and amounted to a further violation of the Petitioner’s fundamental right to fair labour practices under Article 41(1) of the Constitution,” said in his court documents.

He further adds that this sham reorganization demonstrates how the role of the KCB Group Company Secretary purportedly ceased to be and was then very briefly replaced with a new role of the KCB Group General Counsel. The role of KCB Group Company Secretary then ‘resurfaced’ immediately thereafter, in total violation of legal and regulatory requirements.

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Court of Appeal Upholds Eviction of Radcliffes from Karen Land




Adrian Radcliffe, the Expatriate Squatter, Evicted from Karen Property by Innocent Purchaser for Value

The Court of Appeal has stayed the decision of the Environment and Land Court purporting to reinstate Adrian Radcliffe into possession of the 5.7 Acre Karen Land by Kena Properties Ltd after eviction by the lawful owners in February 2022. Adrian Radcliffe who was evicted by Kena Properties Ltd, the innocent purchaser of the Land for value.

Before his eviction, Mr. Radcliffe had been living on the land as a squatter expatriate for 33 years without paying any rent. Since he moved into the property as a tenant, he only paid deposit for the land in August 1989 despite corresponding severally with the owner of the land. His attempt to acquire the land by adverse possession claim filed in 2005 was dismissed by Court in 2011 on the basis that he has engaged with the owner of the land July 1997 and agreed to buy the land which he failed to do. The High Court [Justice Kalpana Rawal as she then was] concluded that:

“His [Mr. Adrian Radcliffe] averments that he did not have any idea of the whereabouts of the Defendant and that he could possibly be not alive, were not only very sad but mala fide in view of the correspondence on record addressed by him to the Defendant’s wife. I would thus find that the averments made by him to the contrary are untrue looking to the facts of this case.”

On 10th March 2022, Mr. Adrian Radcliffe and Family purported to obtain court orders for reinstatement into the land. However, the Court of Appeal issued an interim stay of execution of the said orders. The Court of Appeal has now granted the application of Kena Properties Ltd and stayed the execution of the Environment and Land Court Order pending the hearing and determination of the Appeal.

The Court also stayed the proceedings at the Environment and Land Court on the matter during the pendency of the Appeal. In effect, the eviction orders issued by the Chief Magistrate Court for eviction of Mr. Adrian Radcliffe in favour of Kena Properties as the purchaser of the property for value were upheld and the company now enjoys unfettered ownership and possession of the suit property until the conclusion of the Appeal.

The Court of Appeal in granting the orders sought by Kena Properties Ltd concurred with Kena Properties Ltd that as the property owner it had an arguable appeal with a high probability of success which would be rendered nugatory if Adrian Radcliffe a trespasser was to resume his unlawful possession of the suit property, erect structures thereon, recklessly use or abuse the said suit property as he deems fit. In any case, that is bound to fundamentally alter the state of the suit property and render it unusable by Kena Properties Ltd as the property owner.

At the same time, the Appellate Court rubbished the argument of Adrian Radcliffe in opposition to the application for stay that he has been in occupation of the suit property for more than 30 years and that he and his family were unlawfully evicted from the suit property on 4th February, 2022. The Court also rejected Radcliffe’s claim that Kena Properties Ltd has no valid title to the suit property and held that as the purchaser, the company was entitled to enjoy ownership and possession of their property during the pendency of the appeal.

The Court dismissed claims of Mr. Adrian Radcliffe that Kena Properties Ltd as the property owner acquired title to the suit property illegally and unprocedurally finding to the contrary. Further, it rejected Adrian Radcliffe’s claim that Kena Properties as the purchaser cannot evict a legal occupier of a property putting paid to the claim that he was a legal occupier at the time of eviction.

As a matter of fact, Mr. Adrian Radcliffe cannot claim to be the legal occupier of the property having attempted to acquire it by adverse possession before the High Court thwarted his fraudulent scheme on 28th February 2011. Mr. Radcliffe did not appeal the 2011 High Court decision meaning it is still the law that he is not the owner of the land nor the legal occupier of the land having attempted to adversely acquire against the interests of the lawful owner who sold it to Kena Properties.

Mr. Adrian Radcliffe is a well-to-do Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WaSH) UNICEF consultant and former UN employee (who has been earning hefty House Allowance). Many have wondered why he has been defaulting in paying rent for 33 years on the prime plot of land in Karen while living large and taking his kids to most expensive schools in Kenya. No question, a local Kenyan could never have gotten away with such selfish impunity.

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News & Analysis

Review: Journal of Conflict Management and Sustainable Development, Vol. 9, No. 1




The Journal of Conflict Management and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, Issue No. 1, which is edited by and published by Dr. Kariuki Muigua, PhD is out and stays true to the reputation of the journal in providing a platform for scholarly debate on thematic areas in the fields of Conflict Management and Sustainable Development. The current issue published in September 2022 covers diverse topics including Resolving Oil and Gas Disputes in Africa; National Environment Tribunal, Sustainable Development and Access to Justice in Kenya; Protection of Cultural Heritage During War; The Role of Water in the attainment of Sustainable Development in Kenya; Property Rights in Human Biological Materials in Kenya; Nurturing our Wetlands for Biodiversity Conservation; Investor-State Dispute Resolution in a Fast-Paced World; Status of Participation of Women in Mediation; Business of Climate Change and Critical Analysis of World Trade Organization’s Most-Favored Nation (MFN) Treatment.

Dr. Wilfred A. Mutubwa and Eunice Njeri Ng’ang’a in “Resolving Oil and Gas Disputes in an Integrating Africa: An Appraisal of the Role of Regional Arbitration Centres” explore the nature of disputes in the realm of oil and gas in Africa taking a look into the recent continental and sub-regional developments in a bid to establish regional integration. Additionally, it tests the limits of intra-African trade and dispute resolution and the imperatives for the African regional courts and arbitration centres. In “National Environment Tribunal, Sustainable Development and Access to Justice in Kenya,” Dr. Kariuki Muigua discusses the role played by the National Environment Tribunal (NET) in promoting access to justice and enhancing the principles of sustainable development in Kenya. The paper also highlights challenges facing the tribunal and proposes recommendations towards enhancing the effectiveness of the tribunal.

Dr. Kenneth Wyne Mutuma in “Protecting Cultural Heritage in Times of War: A Case for History,” argues that cultural heritage is at the heart of human existence and its preservation even in times of war is sacrosanct. It concludes that it is thus critical for states to take positive and tangible steps to ensure environmental conservation and protection during war within the ambit of the existing international legal framework. In “The Role of Water in the attainment of Sustainable Development in Kenya,” Jack Shivugu critically evaluates the role of water in the attainment of sustainable development in Kenya and argues water plays a critical role in the attainment of the sustainable development goals both in Kenya and at the global stage. The paper interrogates some of the water and Sustainable Development concerns in Kenya including water pollution, water scarcity and climate change and suggests practical ways to enhance the role of water in the Sustainable Development agenda.

Dr. Paul Ogendi in “Collective Property Rights in Human Biological Materials in Kenya,” reflects on property rights in relation to human biological materials obtained from research participants participating in genomic research. He argues that property rights are crucial in genomic research because they can help avoid exploitation or abuse of such precious material by researchers. In “Nurturing our Wetlands for Biodiversity Conservation,” Dr. Kariuki Muigua notes that Wetlands have a vital role in not just delivering ecological services to meet human needs, but also in biodiversity conservation. Wetlands are vital habitat sites for many species and a source of water, both of which contribute to biodiversity protection. The paper examines the role of wetlands in biodiversity conservation and how these wetland resources might be managed to improve biodiversity conservation.

Oseko Louis D. Obure in “Investor-State Dispute Resolution in a Fast-Paced World,” preponderance of disputes between States or States and Investors created need for a robust, effective, and efficient mechanisms not only for the resolution of these disputes but also their prevention. He notes that developing states lead in being parties to Investor-State Disputes (ISD) particularly as respondents. He proceeds to conceptualize and problematize investor-state disputes resolution in a fast-paced world. Lilian N.S. Kong’ani and Dr. Kariuki Muigua in “Status of Participation of Women in Mediation: A case Study of Development Project Conflict in Olkaria IV, Kenya” review the status of participation of women in mediation to resolve conflicts between KenGen and the community. The paper demonstrates a need for further democratization of the mediation processes to cater for more participation of women to enhance the mediation results and offer more sustainable resolutions.

Felix Otieno Odhiambo and Melinda Lorenda Mueni in “The Business of Climate Change: An Analysis of Carbon Trading in Kenya analyses the business of carbon trading in the context of Kenya’s legal framework. The article examines the legal framework that underpins climate change into the Kenyan legal system and provides an exposition of the concept of carbon trading and its various forms. Michael Okello, in “Critical Analysis of World Trade Organisation’s Most-Favored Nation (MFN) Treatment: Prospects, Challenges and Emerging Trends in the 21st Century,” highlights the rationale behind MFN treatment and also restates the vision of multilateral trade to achieve equitable and special interventions with respect to trade in goods, services and trade related intellectual property rights in the affected states.

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