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Book Review: Settling Disputes Through Arbitration in Kenya, 4th Edition



Dr. Kariuki Muigua, PhD , Chartered Arbitrator, ADR bestseller  “Settling Disputes Through Arbitration in Kenya”, now in the 4th Edition, has become widely-accepted as the most authoritative reference book on arbitration in Kenya. The book is esteemed as the foremost arbitration textbook and practitioners guide in Kenya and the larger East Africa region. The author, Dr. Kariuki Muigua, PhD was recently nominated by the Republic of Kenya as one of its Four (4) Members of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague. He is ranked in Band 1 among the Top 5 Arbitrators in Kenya by Chambers and Partners in 2023. Dr. Kariuki Muigua is Africa’s CIARB Trustee Emeritus (2019-2022) and won the African Arbitrator of the Year 2022 and African ADR Practitioner of the Year Award 2022 last year. He was awarded the prestigious Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (Kenya) Inaugural ADR Lifetime Achievement Award 2021 and was the Law Society of Kenya (Nairobi Branch) ADR Practitioner of the Year in 2021 and ADR Publisher of the Year Award Winner 2021.

In terms of context, “Settling Disputes Through Arbitration in Kenya,” was first published after the Constitution of Kenya 2010 entrenched and widened the application of ADR and arbitration by requiring the incorporation of ADR mechanisms, including negotiation, mediation and arbitration in the settlement of disputes of disputes, it became necessary to encourage students and professionals to acquire skills and expertise in ADR. Dr. Kariuki Muigua, at the time of the 1st Edition, the Chairperson of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (Kenya) at the time, took up the challenge to write the book that takes readers through the process of arbitration in a simplified, yet comprehensive manner, along with highlights of the latest key amendments and case law on arbitration in Kenya. It is remarkable to note that the 4th Edition is a 407 Pages book from 247 Pages, marking 160 Page expansion.

Dr. Kariuki Muigua has offered this 4th Edition of his book for free download in his law firm Kariuki Muigua & Co. Advocates website here for limited duration in a quest to realize the key objective of its publication, promoting knowledge on key aspects of arbitration. Dr. Muigua noted in the Author’s Note to the current edition: “I recommend this book to ADR students, teachers and tutors of ADR, ADR practitioners and to the general public interested in acquiring knowledge on the various ADR mechanisms in Kenya and their role in resolving or settling disputes occurring in everyday life…. In addition, this book has a place as a core textbook for the popular Entry Course in Arbitration, offered by Chartered Institute of Arbitrators-Kenya around East Africa and for postgraduate students of international commercial arbitration, to whom it will offer basic foundational knowledge.”

Chapter One – Introduction to Arbitration

This chapter introduces arbitration as one of the mechanisms that are commonly referred to as Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanisms (ADR) as set out in Article 33 of the Charter of the United Nations. The Chapter also explores attributes of arbitration which make it ideal mode of dispute resolution and the different types of arbitration which include: ad hoc, institutional, statutory, look-sniff, flip-flop, documents–only, domestic and international and how to determine which type of arbitration is appropriate or relevant for the given case. Arbitration in Kenya Kenyan context is also explored as recognized under the Constitution under Article 159 and entrenched under the Arbitration Act 1995, the Arbitration Rules, Civil Procedure Act and the Civil Procedure Rules 2010. The Chapter also juxtaposes arbitration and other modes of dispute resolution to unearth the occasions when it is the most fitting mode of dispute resolution.

Chapter Two – Arbitration Agreement

The second chapter discusses the arbitration agreement as the basis of arbitration. The chapter makes an introduction to arbitration agreements and clauses and critically examines their salient features. The Chapter includes a general overview of arbitration agreement, arbitration clauses, contractual requirements in arbitration agreements, formal requirements of an arbitration agreement and gives guidance on drafting effective arbitration agreements to avoid ambiguity and non-recognition or non-enforcement of the arbitration clause.

Chapter Three – Stay of Legal Proceedings for Arbitration

This chapter deals with instances where Stay of Legal Proceedings for Arbitration occurs and how to deal with it both as a party and as counsel or party representative and how to avoid recourse to it in drafting arbitration clause. The Chapter discusses grounds for stay of proceedings for arbitration addresses issues and procedure for application of stay of proceedings.

Chapter Four – Commencing an Arbitration and the Appointment of an Arbitral Tribunal

The fourth chapter addresses commencing an arbitration and the appointment of an Arbitral Tribunal from communication of a notice of arbitration up to commencement of arbitration. The various modes of appointing arbitrators and the relevant legal provisions are discussed as well as the factors to be considered in choosing an arbitrator and issues incidental to the appointment of arbitrators such as challenge of arbitral tribunal, immunity of arbitrators, withdrawal of arbitrators, termination of arbitrators and the aftermath of challenge and termination of arbitrators.

Chapter Five – Jurisdiction and powers of an arbitrator

This chapter discusses issues touching on the “jurisdiction and powers of an arbitrator” under the laws of Kenya. It defines the jurisdiction of the arbitrator, discusses types of jurisdiction, jurisdiction of the courts in arbitration, Prerequisites of Jurisdiction of an Arbitrator, Sources of Jurisdiction and Powers generally and under Arbitration Act, 1995, and limitations on the jurisdiction and powers of the Arbitrator.

Chapter Six – Modes of opposing and challenging arbitration reference

It deals with “Modes of opposing and challenging arbitration reference” including issues relevant and related to opposing arbitration references. In particular, Dr. Muigua discusses at length issues relating to challenging the appointment of the arbitral tribunal and the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal, the teething issues that may come about before and after commencement of the arbitration process. The chapter also explores the objections that may be raised including allegation as to lack of binding arbitration agreement between parties, objection on whether the dispute is within the scope of the arbitration agreement, objection that the reference is time-barred, challenges to the appointment of arbitrators and challenges to the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal. As it is, the arbitral tribunal has two options open to it when the question of jurisdiction is raised by a party. It may rule on the matter as a preliminary question or wait to address it in an arbitral award on the merits. The ruling of the arbitral tribunal in the former instance may be challenged by the aggrieved party by way of an application to the High Court.

Chapter Seven – Preparation for arbitration proceedings

The seventh chapter tackles issues that relate to “preparation for arbitration proceedings.” The chapter discusses what the arbitrator does upon appointment, in preparation for commencement of the arbitral proceedings, namely, convening a preliminary meeting and issuing directions pursuant to the meeting. Issues relating to pleadings in arbitration are also explored including the various types of pleadings used in arbitration and the relevant legal provisions touching on them. The chapter also deals with pre-hearing procedures that are related to pleadings in that they are used to enhance documentation in arbitration. Here, issues relating to seeking further (and better) particulars, discovery (disclosure and inspection) and amendment of pleadings are examined. Finally, interlocutory proceedings in arbitration and the steps taken under Section 7 and Section 18 of the Act and application for security of costs are examined as they constitute steps that are taken mainly to compliment or augment the arbitral process.

Chapter Eight – Arbitration Hearing

This chapter describes generally what takes place in an arbitration hearing. In particular, the chapter entails a description of the procedure that is usually followed from the opening to the closing of the arbitration proceedings to give a picture of what transpires in arbitration hearing. The Chapter also discusses the key aspects of arbitration proceedings which contrast it with litigation and other methods of dispute management.

Chapter Nine – Arbitral Awards, Costs and Interest

Chapter Nine discusses what an arbitral award is, the statutory requirements concerning arbitral awards as well as the provisions of the Arbitration Act, 1995 on arbitration costs and interest. The chapter also outlines the law and the contemporary issues relating to arbitral awards and to costs and interest in arbitration relevant to the Kenyan scenario.

Chapter Ten – Role of the Court in Arbitration

Chapter Ten revisits the role of the court in arbitration in Kenya as stipulated under the Arbitration Act of 1995. The analysis centres on the provisions for court intervention before, during and after arbitration hearing in Kenya. In addition, Dr. Kariuki Muigua proposes necessary reforms as far as court intervention is concerned are proposed. The principle of court intervention in arbitration in Kenya as enunciated in the Arbitration Act, 1995 and the specific legal provisions in the Arbitration Act, 1995 which give the court power to intervene in arbitration are discussed in the context of the Kenyan case law and legal practice. A critical analysis of the role of the court in arbitration in Kenya is also done as part of the debate whether court intervention is a friend or a foe to the expeditious and fair determination of arbitral matters.

Chapter Eleven – Post Hearing Steps in Arbitration

This Chapter is on “Post-Hearing Steps in Arbitration” discusses the steps that take place after the conclusion of the arbitration hearing and the publishing of the arbitration award. The focus is on the applications that may be made to the court for the purpose of enforcing or setting aside or appealing against the arbitral award and applications for setting aside of the award (if any) as well as recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards. The chapter also discusses cases where a party may also apply to a court to determine a question of law arising in the cause of the arbitration and appeal against arbitral award.

Chapter Twelve – Arbitration Practice in Kenya

Chapter Twelve explores the practice of arbitration in Kenya and discusses the contemporary issues surrounding professional arbitration practice in the country, what it takes for one to qualify as an arbitrator in Kenya, the nature of arbitration as a profession and the future of arbitration in Kenya and around the world. This is the perfect primer for anyone seeking a career as an arbitration practitioner in Kenya and East Africa in general.

Chapter Thirteen – Promoting International Commercial Arbitration

This is one of the most outstanding out additions in this fourth Edition of the Book is Chapter 13 of the book which deals with promoting International Commercial Arbitration. In this chapter, Dr. Kariuki Muigua, PhD offers a critical examination of the extent to which international commercial arbitration has taken root in Kenya. In particular, the discourse looks at the legal framework governing arbitration and identifies the challenges therein, hindering the prosperity of international commercial arbitration in Kenya. The challenges and opportunities in the practice of international commercial arbitration in Kenya are explored in view of the need to nurture the same in the context of Kenya. The author identifies the main problems facing international commercial arbitration in Kenya and proposes certain measures that would make it flourish in Kenya.

Chapter Fourteen – Trade and International Treaty Arbitration

Further, Dr. Muigua has added a Chapter in the 4th Edition on Trade and Investments Treaty Arbitration. The chapter offers a critical discussion of trade and investments arbitration in the context of Africa. It also looks at the growth trends, challenges and prospects of investor state arbitration in the context of Africa. Notably, Africa has been lagging behind the rest of the world as far as trade and investments arbitration is concerned even as most developing world countries have been pushing for reforms in the 1965 Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (the ICSID Convention) system. The Chapter explores dispute resolution under African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement (“the AfCFTA”) and the various regional trade arrangements including COMESA, ECOWAS, EAC and SADC as alternatives to ICSID and other international commercial arbitration forums.

Chapter Fifteen – Contemporary Issues in Dispute Settlement

This chapter critically discusses the emerging issues and the trends in arbitration practice, across all the thematic areas of arbitration. The Constitution of Kenya enshrines the fundamental right of access to justice and mandates the state to ensure access to justice for all persons. Notably, the issues highlighted are neither limited to domestic arbitration nor international arbitration but also touch on other modes of access to justice. With the ever growing globalisation and international trade and investments, territorial boundaries have increasingly become irrelevant as far as businesses are concerned. However, it is noted that with the ever present commercial disputes, international arbitration has continued to play a critical role in their management.

Chapter Sixteen – Conclusion and Way Forward

Finally, Dr. Kariuki Muigua has added a conclusion and way forward chapter of the book. It notes that the book offers critical discussions around the current law and practice of both domestic and international arbitration in Kenya as well as investment treaty arbitration within the context of the African continent. The book heavily relies on current case law in Kenya in order to appreciate the current trends in the country as far as the relationship between domestic courts and practice of arbitration is concerned. It appeals to policy makers, arbitration practitioners and students who wish to pursue the dispute resolution sector more effectively and professionally to work towards achieving the recommendations in this book, both at personal levels and sectoral level.

News & Analysis

What is Carbon Markets?



Written by Faith Nyambura Kabora, Advocate.

Carbon markets are a mechanism designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which are essentially gases that trap heat in the atmosphere and contribute to the negative impacts of climate change such as prolonged drought and rising of sea levels.

Carbon markets operate on the principle of putting a price on carbon emissions to create commercial/economic incentives for public and private entities to reduce their carbon footprint and invest in cleaner, sustainable practices.

Ideally, by putting a price on carbon, the carbon markets encourage sustainable environmental practices and help counties meet their emission reduction targets under international treaties, like the Paris Agreement, which Kenya is a signatory to. For a broader understanding, here is how a carbon market works;

  1. A Government establishes a limit on the total amount of greenhouse gas emission/pollution is allowed within its geographical limits;
  2. A grant, say permissions are created and distributed to eligible participants. This allowance represents the right to emit a certain amount of greenhouse gas;
  3. The participants can then buy and sell the allowances. Ideally, those who reduce their emissions more efficiently sell their surplus allowance to those who find it more challenging to reduce the emissions. If a company pollutes a lot, they need to buy more permissions, and if they do not pollute as much, they can sell their extra permissions.
  4. Entities are required to hold enough allowances to cover their actual emissions. If they exceed allocated allowances, they face penalties or, as expounded above, they buy additional allowances. This is the part where compliance becomes mandatory for all the key players.
  5. The price of the allowances fluctuates based on supply and demands and reflects the cost of emitting greenhouse gases. It is essentially like paying for pollution.

A carbon market plays a pivotal role in advancing climate action and promoting sustainable practices by incentivizing companies to reconsider their pollution practices, which can result in financial consequences as pollution becomes a costly endeavor. In Kenya, the introduction of a Carbon Market is imperative as the world confronts the dire consequences of climate change. Furthermore, it offers a commercial opportunity for investors considering the growing demand for environmentally friendly and carbon neutral products and services.

As mentioned above, the Paris Agreement is one of the most important international treaties dedicated strengthen global response to the negative impact of climate change. Ultimately, the Agreement’s goal is to motivate countries to limit global emissions and more importantly, to hold them accountable for their actions around reducing their carbon footprints.

Kenya as a signatory to the Paris Agreement has made significant contributions towards fulfilling the obligations under the Paris Agreement of limiting global temperature. The Climate Change (Amendment) Act 2023, nudges Kenya towards the realization of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement by introducing provisions and regulation of and participation in carbon markets.

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Our main goal as MMA Advocates is to establish long-lasting partnerships based on integrity, decency, and reliability. Since every client’s circumstance is unique, our best advocates in Kenya offer timely service and individualized attention at every stage of our collaboration. We make sure our clients are informed and empowered throughout their legal journey because we value openness and transparency in communication. In every case we take on, we are deeply committed to obtaining positive results and client satisfaction. This is just one aspect of our unwavering commitment to quality.

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News & Analysis

Review: Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Journal, Volume 12(3), 2024



The Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Journal, Volume. 12, No.3, 2024 covers pertinent and emerging issues across all ADR mechanisms. This volume exposes our readers to a variety of salient topics and concerns in ADR including Building Peace in Africa, Public Policy as a Ground of Setting-Aside an Arbitral Award, Ethics, Integrity and Best Practice in Mediation, Accessing Justice in Kenya, Sports Arbitration, ESG Arbitration, Arbitration of Investor-State Dispute in Kenya, Article 159(2) of the Constitution of Kenya 2010 and issuance of interim measures by Arbitral Tribunals. The ADR Journal is a publication of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators, Kenya Branch. It provides a platform for scholarly debate and in-depth investigations into both theoretical and practical questions in Alternative Dispute Resolution.

The journal is edited by Professor of Law at the University of Nairobi, Faculty of Law Hon Prof. Kariuki Muigua, a distinguished law scholar, an accomplished mediator and arbitrator with a Ph.D. in law from the University of Nairobi and widespread training and experience in both international and national commercial arbitration and mediation. Prof. Muigua is a Fellow of Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (CIArb)- Kenya chapter and also a Chartered Arbitrator. He is a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, The Hague. He also serves as a member of the National Environment Tribunal. He has served as the Chartered Institute of Arbitrator’s (CIArb- UK) Regional Trustee for Africa from 2019 -2022.

In the paper “Building Peace in Africa through Alternative Dispute Resolution”  Hon. Prof. Kariuki Muigua critically discusses the role of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) mechanisms in peace building in Africa. The paper argues that ADR mechanisms can play a fundamental role in building peace in Africa. The paper further posits that ADR mechanisms are able to enhance sustainable peace in Africa due to their focus on reconciliation and restorative justice. It proposes solutions towards building peace in Africa through ADR.

In “the Emergence of the International Commercial Court: A Threat to Arbitration of Investor-State Dispute in Kenya” Marion Injendi Wasike and Dr. Kenneth W. Mutuma argue that the proliferation of international commercial courts, including their introduction in Kenya, necessitates a thorough analysis of their implications on arbitration’s role in investor-state disputes. By juxtaposing these emerging judicial entities against traditional arbitration paradigms, the discussion aims to unravel the complexities and potential shifts in dispute resolution preferences, highlighting the balance between innovation in legal adjudication and the sustenance of arbitration’s revered position in the international legal order.

Kamau Karori SC, MBS in “Striking a Balance: A Delicate Dance Between Sanctity and Scrutiny” notes that the continuing debate —between upholding the inviolability of arbitral awards and judicial intervention in cases of egregious injustice points to the need for delicate balancing between non-interference and the need to correct unmistakably unjust awards. The urgency of this discourse is informed by the need to prevent consumers or potential consumers of arbitration services opting to exclude arbitration clauses due to perceived deficiencies. The article seeks to navigate the genesis of the debate, delicately dissect the different perspectives, and draw comparisons with global practices.

The article “Reforming Kenya’s Law on Probation and Aftercare Services to Promote Alternative Dispute Resolution” by Michael Sang engages in a comprehensive exploration of Kenya’s Probation of Offenders Act within the context of the growing role of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) principles in the nation’s criminal justice system. Drawing inspiration from international legal instruments such as “The Beijing Rules,” “Bangkok Rules,” and “Tokyo Rules,” the study evaluates the Act’s provisions, strengths, and limitations. It concludes with a call for thoughtful reforms that align Kenya’s criminal justice system with international standards, emphasizing a balanced and compassionate approach to justice.

The “Upholding Ethics, Integrity and Best Practice in Mediation” by Hon. Prof. Kariuki Muigua, OGW critically discusses the need for standardization of mediation practice in Kenya by adopting best practices. It examines some of the challenges facing mediation practice in Kenya. It is also explores measures adopted towards fostering best practices in mediation at both the global and national level. The paper further suggests recommendations aimed at upholding ethics, integrity and best practice in mediation. In “Exploring the Role of Mediation in Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and Fostering Economic Growth in Kenya” Atundo Wambare offers an in-depth analysis of the use of mediation in promoting the growth of small and medium enterprises (SME’s). He makes recommendations on how best mediation can be harnessed as a tool for economic growth in Kenya.

James Njuguna and Nyamboga George Nyanaro in “Compulsory Resolution or Autonomy Erosion? The Debate on Mandatory Sports Arbitration delve into the contentious issue of mandatory sports arbitration, questioning its role as a potential future pathway for dispute resolution. Their research examines the implications of compulsory arbitration on athletes’ autonomy, juxtaposing it with the benefits of expedited dispute resolution.

Paul Ngotho in “Constitution of Kenya 2010 Article 159.2.(c): Ancestry, Anatomy, Efficacy & Legacy” traces the rather odd origin and everlasting effect of the often-cited Article 159.2.(c) of the Constitution of Kenya 2010. It acknowledges the central role played by two members of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators Kenya Branch, quietly and privately, away from the mainstream constitution making process. One of them chairman of the Branch, the other the Minister of Justice, National Cohesion and Constitutional Affairs.

David Onsare in “Navigating The ESG Maze: Emerging Trends in Arbitration and Corporate Accountability” embarks on a timely exploration of the dynamic interplay between Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) factors and arbitration, a field gaining critical importance in the realm of corporate accountability. By offering a comprehensive view of the complexities and practical implications of ESG in arbitration, the article serves as a crucial guide for legal professionals navigating the evolving landscape of corporate responsibility and arbitration. In “Public Policy as a Ground of Setting-Aside an Arbitral Award: Musings on the Centurion Engineers Civil Appeal Judgment”

Ibrahim Kitoo argues a case for upholding of public policy as a ground for the nonrecognition, non-enforcement and setting aside of an arbitral award in cases where to recognise and enforce such awards proves to be a clear violation of the law and against the public good. Juvenalis Ngowi in “Arbitral Tribunals: Do they have the power to issue interim measures during the proceedings?” discusses the powers of the Arbitral Tribunal to grant such orders and examines some procedural rules which empower arbitrators to issue such orders, the scope of those powers, and the factors to be considered when granting interim measures in the arbitral proceedings.

In “Examining the Efficacy of Mediation as A Tool for Accessing Justice in Kenya: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Perspectives” Murithi Antony undertakes a thorough examination of mediation as a form of ADR in the Kenyan context. He identifies opportunities arising from the integration of mediation into the country’s legal system and explores barriers impeding its widespread adoption. The article concludes with a resounding call to action for all stakeholders to champion the use of mediation collaboratively and proactively, given its proven efficacy in dispute resolution.

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We are open for consultations with our clients worldwide; we have lawyers on standby for 24 hours to cover diverse time zones that impact on our global clients.

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News & Analysis

Way Forward in Applying Collaborative Approaches Towards Conflict Management



By Hon. Prof. Kariuki Muigua, OGW, PhD, C.Arb, FCIArb is a Professor of Environmental Law and Dispute Resolution at the University of Nairobi, Member of Permanent Court of Arbitration, Leading Environmental Law Scholar, Respected Sustainable Development Policy Advisor, Top Natural Resources Lawyer, Highly-Regarded Dispute Resolution Expert and Awardee of the Order of Grand Warrior (OGW) of Kenya by H.E. the President of Republic of Kenya. He is the Academic Champion of ADR 2024, the African ADR Practitioner of the Year 2022, the African Arbitrator of the Year 2022, ADR Practitioner of the Year in Kenya 2021, CIArb (Kenya) Lifetime Achievement Award 2021 and ADR Publisher of the Year 2021 and Author of the Kenya’s First ESG Book: Embracing Environmental Social and Governance (ESG) tenets for Sustainable Development” (Glenwood, Nairobi, July 2023) and Kenya’s First Two Climate Change Law Book: Combating Climate Change for Sustainability (Glenwood, Nairobi, October 2023), Achieving Climate Justice for Development (Glenwood, Nairobi, October 2023), Promoting Rule of Law for Sustainable Development (Glenwood, Nairobi, January 2024) and Actualizing the Right to a Clean and Healthy Environment (Glenwood, Nairobi, March 2024)*

It is necessary to embrace and utilize collaborative approaches in managing conflicts. These techniques include mediation, negotiation, and facilitation. These mechanisms are effective in managing conflicts since they encourage parties to embrace and address disagreements through empathy and listening towards mutually beneficial solutions. Collaborative approaches also have the potential to preserve relationships, build trust, and promote long term positive change. They also ensure a win-win solution is found so that everyone is satisfied which creates the condition for peace and sustainability. These approaches are therefore ideal in managing conflicts. It is therefore important to embrace collaborative approaches in order to ensure effective management of conflicts.

In addition, it is necessary for third parties including mediators and facilitators to develop their skills and techniques in order to enhance the effectiveness of collaborative approaches towards conflict management. For example, it has correctly been observed that mediators and facilitators should listen actively and empathetically in order to assist parties to collaborate towards managing their dispute. Therefore, when a dispute arises, the first step should involve listening to all parties involved with an open mind and without judgment. This should entail active listening, which means paying attention to both verbal and nonverbal cues and acknowledging the emotions and perceptions involved.

It has been observed that by listening empathetically, a third party such as a mediator of facilitator can understand each person’s perspective and start to build a foundation for resolving the conflict through collaboration. In addition, while collaborating towards conflict management, it is necessary to encourage and help parties to focus on interests and not positions. It has been pointed out that focusing positions can result in a standstill which can delay or even defeat the conflict management process. However, by identifying and addressing the underlying interests parties can find common ground and collaborate towards coming up with creative solutions towards their conflict.

Mediators and facilitators should also assist parties to look for areas of agreement or shared goals. Identifying a common ground can build momentum and create a positive environment for resolving the conflict. Further, in order to ensure the effectiveness of collaborative approaches in conflict management, it is necessary to build strong collaboration. It has been asserted that strong collaboration can be achieved by establishing a shared purpose, cultivating trust among parties, encouraging active participation by all parties, and promoting effective communication.

Strong collaboration enables parties to develop trust between and among themselves and strengthen communication channels between the various parties. It also helps to generate inclusive solutions that arise from wider stakeholders’ views. Therefore while applying collaborative approaches, it is necessary for parties to foster strong collaboration by identifying common goals, building trust, ensuring that all stakeholders are involved, and communicating effectively in order to come up with win-win outcomes.

Finally, while embracing collaborative approaches in conflict management, it is necessary for parties to consider seeking help from third parties if need arises. For example, negotiation is always the first point of call whenever a conflict arises whereby parties attempt to manage their conflict without the involvement of third parties. It has been described as the most effective collaborative approach towards conflict management since it starts with an understanding by both parties that they must search for solutions that satisfy everyone.

It enables parties to a dispute to come together to openly discuss the issue causing tension, actively listen to each other, and come up with mutually satisfactory solutions. However, it has been correctly observed that negotiation may fail especially if the conflict is particularly complex or involves multiple parties due to challenges in collaborating. In such circumstances, where negotiation fails, parties should consider resorting to other collaborative approaches such as mediation and facilitation where they attempt to manage the conflict with the help of a third party. A mediator or facilitator can assist parties to collaborate and continue with the negotiations and ultimately break the deadlock.

*This is an extract from Kenya’s First Clean and Healthy Environment Book: Actualizing the Right to a Clean and Healthy Environment (Glenwood, Nairobi, January 2024) by Hon. Prof.  Kariuki Muigua, OGW, PhD, Professor of Environmental Law and Dispute Resolution, Senior Advocate of Kenya, Chartered Arbitrator, Kenya’s ADR Practitioner of the Year 2021 (Nairobi Legal Awards), ADR Lifetime Achievement Award 2021 (CIArb Kenya), African Arbitrator of the Year 2022, Africa ADR Practitioner of the Year 2022, Member of National Environment Tribunal (NET) Emeritus (2017 to 2023) and Member of Permanent Court of Arbitration nominated by Republic of Kenya and Academic Champion of ADR 2024. Prof. Kariuki Muigua is a foremost Environmental Law and Natural Resources Lawyer and Scholar, Sustainable Development Advocate and Conflict Management Expert in Kenya. Prof. Kariuki Muigua teaches Environmental Law and Dispute resolution at the University of Nairobi School of Law, The Center for Advanced Studies in Environmental Law and Policy (CASELAP) and Wangari Maathai Institute for Peace and Environmental Studies. He has published numerous books and articles on Environmental Law, Environmental Justice Conflict Management, Alternative Dispute Resolution and Sustainable Development. Prof. Muigua is also a Chartered Arbitrator, an Accredited Mediator, the Managing Partner of Kariuki Muigua & Co. Advocates and Africa Trustee Emeritus of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators 2019-2022. Prof. Muigua is a 2023 recipient of President of the Republic of Kenya Order of Grand Warrior (OGW) Award for his service to the Nation as a Distinguished Expert, Academic and Scholar in Dispute Resolution and recognized among the top 5 leading lawyers and dispute resolution experts in Band 1 in Kenya by the Chambers Global Guide 2024 and was listed in the Inaugural THE LAWYER AFRICA Litigation Hall of Fame 2023 as one of the Top 50 Most Distinguished Litigation Lawyers in Kenya and the Top Arbitrator in Kenya in 2023.


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Weiss. J., & Hughes. J., ‘Want Collaboration?: Accept—and Actively Manage— Conflict’ Available at (Accessed on 01/03/2024).

Kariuki Muigua & Company Advocates is a Top-Tier Kenyan law firm situated at the heart of Nairobi city in Kenya. We are a broad-based practice with a reputation for offering a full range of quality services to our domestic and international clients.

At KM&CO, we take pride in offering personalized attention to our diverse clientele. Our practice aspires to offer efficient and cost-effective legal solutions that meet our esteemed clients’ needs in a timely and competent manner.

KM&CO was founded in 1993 by the current senior Advocate, Dr. Kariuki Muigua. It is based in the Central Business District of Nairobi at the Pioneer Assurance House located opposite 7th August Bomb Blast Memorial Park enjoying the convenience of close proximity to major financial, commercial and governmental institutions.

We are open for consultations with our clients worldwide; we have lawyers on standby for 24 hours to cover diverse time zones that impact on our global clients.

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