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The Way Forward in Managing Energy Disputes in Africa

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Copyright: Herbert Kehrer

By Hon. Prof. Kariuki Muigua, OGW, PhD, C.Arb, FCIArb is a Professor of Environmental Law and Dispute Resolution at the University of Nairobi, Member of Permanent Court of Arbitration, Leading Environmental Law Scholar, Respected Sustainable Development Policy Advisor, Top Natural Resources Lawyer, Highly-Regarded Dispute Resolution Expert and Awardee of the Order of Grand Warrior (OGW) of Kenya by H.E. the President of Republic of Kenya. He is The African ADR Practitioner of the Year 2022, The African Arbitrator of the Year 2022, ADR Practitioner of the Year in Kenya 2021, CIArb (Kenya) Lifetime Achievement Award 2021 and ADR Publisher of the Year 2021 and Author of the Kenya’s First ESG Book: Embracing Environmental Social and Governance (ESG) tenets for Sustainable Development” (Glenwood, Nairobi, July 2023) and Kenya’s First Two Climate Change Law Book: Combating Climate Change for Sustainability (Glenwood, Nairobi, October 2023), Achieving Climate Justice for Development (Glenwood, Nairobi, October 2023) and Promoting Rule of Law for Sustainable Development (Glenwood, Nairobi, January 2024)*

There is need to embrace ADR mechanisms in the management of energy disputes in Africa. It has been pointed out that concerns with regard to time and cost relating to energy disputes call for swift and efficient dispute resolution in Africa, which will likely take the form of ADR methods, especially in the context of volatile economic and commercial contexts. ADR mechanisms including arbitration and mediation are therefore appropriate in the management of energy disputes in Africa. It has rightly been observed that ADR mechanisms have been practiced in Africa for many centuries. These techniques fit comfortably within traditional concepts of African justice, particularly its core values of reconciliation, peace and cohesion.

ADR mechanisms provide parties with the opportunity to manage and resolve disputes before they escalate, which can not only save time and costs but can also preserve critical business relationships especially in long term energy projects. Parties should therefore embrace ADR mechanisms including negotiation, mediation and arbitration in order to foster effective management of energy disputes in Africa.

In the case of arbitration, it is essential to address inadequate legal and institutional framework, inadequate marketing, uncertainty in drafting arbitration clauses, interference by national courts, uncertainty of costs, perception of corruption and bias against Africa. This calls for strengthening the legal and institutional capacity on arbitration in Africa, drafting of effective arbitration clauses in energy contracts, marketing Africa as a hub for arbitration, capacity building for arbitrators through education and training, limiting court intervention in arbitration to a basic and necessary minimum, and addressing the problem of corruption through good governance.

It has also been suggested that there is need to establish a unified international arbitration court for energy disputes. It has been argued that there is a need for unification of the current international arbitration mechanisms since the different arbitration procedures, subject to different procedural and substantial rules, may result in problems concerning the enforcement of the arbitral awards in local jurisdictions. Establishment of a unified international arbitration court for energy disputes will ensure that the court has the widest jurisdiction to hear the energy disputes through the most suitable procedural and substantial rules for energy-specific disputes. This will also ensure predictable, transparent, and unified arbitration mechanism for management of energy disputes.

It is also imperative for parties to embrace dispute avoidance. It has been asserted that conflict avoidance requires clear, concise, careful and proper planning of the strategy for the execution of projects. It is also about adopting a proactive conflict avoidance approach such as risk analysis, clarity in the contract documentation or partnering. It is therefore vital for players in the energy sector in Africa including energy companies to avoid or minimise the chance of disputes arising in the first instance through measures such as ensuring clear and well-drafted contracts which include workable and not overly complicated dispute resolution provisions followed by effective project management from beginning to end. Finally, there is need for the energy sector in Africa to embrace Sustainable Development.

The principle of Sustainable Development requires an integrated approach to development that takes into account environmental protection, economic development and social progress. Players in the energy sector in Africa especially multinational corporations in the oil and gas sector have on several occasions been accused of failing to adhere to the principles of Sustainable Development as evidenced by environmental concerns including the extinction of biodiversity, contamination and destruction of soil and air pollution as a result of oil spillages.

Further, multinational corporations operating in Africa including those in the energy sector have been accused of gross human rights violations, such as killings, bad labour practices and land injustices. Such practices have had an impact on economic activities, social-cultural life and human health of the affected people thus hindering the attainment of Sustainable Development. This has also led to rise of disputes between host states and investors under investment treaty arbitration with host states seeking to enforce the tenets of Sustainable Development including environmental protection and human rights against multinational corporations.

It is therefore imperative for energy companies including multinational corporations in Africa to embrace Sustainable Development by fostering social justice, environmental sustainability, alternative energy and clean technology efforts. In addition, it has been asserted that it is important for African Countries to ensure that they review and negotiate appropriately with foreign countries in order to capture the tenets of Sustainable Development including Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) clauses in BITs. The need for Sustainable Development in the energy sector in Africa is informed by global agendas including energy transition, environmental protection and confronting climate change.

 

*This is an extract from the Book: Promoting Rule of Law for Sustainable Development (Glenwood, Nairobi, January 2024) by Hon. Prof.  Kariuki Muigua, OGW, PhD, Professor of Environmental Law and Dispute Resolution, Senior Advocate of Kenya, Chartered Arbitrator, Kenya’s ADR Practitioner of the Year 2021 (Nairobi Legal Awards), ADR Lifetime Achievement Award 2021 (CIArb Kenya), African Arbitrator of the Year 2022, Africa ADR Practitioner of the Year 2022, Member of National Environment Tribunal (NET) Emeritus (2017 to 2022) and Member of Permanent Court of Arbitration nominated by Republic of Kenya. Prof. Kariuki Muigua is a foremost Environmental Law and Natural Resources Lawyer and Scholar, Sustainable Development Advocate and Conflict Management Expert in Kenya. Prof. Kariuki Muigua teaches Environmental Law and Dispute resolution at the University of Nairobi School of Law, The Center for Advanced Studies in Environmental Law and Policy (CASELAP) and Wangari Maathai Institute for Peace and Environmental Studies. He has published numerous books and articles on Environmental Law, Environmental Justice Conflict Management, Alternative Dispute Resolution and Sustainable Development. Prof. Muigua is also a Chartered Arbitrator, an Accredited Mediator, the Managing Partner of Kariuki Muigua & Co. Advocates and Africa Trustee Emeritus of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators 2019-2022. Prof. Muigua is a 2023 recipient of President of the Republic of Kenya Order of Grand Warrior (OGW) Award for his service to the Nation as a Distinguished Expert, Academic and Scholar in Dispute Resolution and recognized among the top 5 leading lawyers and dispute resolution experts in Band 1 in Kenya by the Chambers Global Guide 2022 and was listed in the Inaugural THE LAWYER AFRICA Litigation Hall of Fame 2023 as one of the Top 50 Most Distinguished Litigation Lawyers in Kenya and the Top Arbitrator in Kenya in 2023.

 

*References*

Africa Development Bank Group., ‘Light Up and Power Africa – A New Deal on Energy for Africa.’ Available at https://www.afdb.org/en/the-high-5/light-up-and-powerafrica-%E2%80%93-a-new-deal-on-energy-for-africa (Accessed on 04/12/2023).

Africa Union., ‘Agenda 2063: The Africa we Want.’ Available at https://au.int/sites/default/files/documents/33126-docframework_document_book.pdf (Accessed on 04/12/2023).

Ashurst., ‘Managing and Resolving Cross-Border Disputes in the Energy Sector.’ Available at https://www.ashurst.com/en/insights/managing-and-resolving-cross-borderdisputes-in-the-energy-sector/ (Accessed on 02/12/2023).

Burges-Salmon., ‘Energy Disputes Guide: Managing Risk and Avoiding Disputes in your Energy Project.’ Available at https://www.burges-salmon.com/energydisputes-guide-managing-risk-and-avoiding-disputes-in-your-energy-project (Accessed on 02/12/2023).

Clearly Gottlieb., ‘Resolving Energy Disputes in Africa Through Arbitration and Alternative Dispute Resolution (‘ADR’).’ Available at https://content.clearygottlieb.com/regions/africa-outlook/resolving-energy-disputes-in-africathrough-arbitration-and-alternative-dispute-resolution/index.html (Accessed on 02/12/2023).

Financier Worldwide Magazine., ‘FORUM: Managing Energy and Natural Resources Industry Disputes.’ Available at https://www.financierworldwide.com/forum-managingenergy-and-natural-resources-industry-disputes (Accessed on 02/12/2023).

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes., ‘Annual Report: 2023.’ Available at https://icsid.worldbank.org/sites/default/files/publications/ICSID_AR2023_ENGLISH_web_ spread.pdf (Accessed on 02/12/2023).

International Energy Agency., ‘Access to Electricity.’ Available at https://www.iea.org/reports/sdg7- data-and-projections/access-to-electricity (Accessed on 04/12/2023).

International Energy Agency., ‘Africa Energy Outlook: 2022.’ Available at https://iea.blob.core.windows.net/assets/220b2862-33a6-47bd-81e9- 00e586f4d384/AfricaEnergyOutlook2022.pdf (Accessed on 04/12/2023).

International Energy Agency., ‘Africa Energy Outlook: 2022.’ Op Cit 29 Global Arbitration Review., ‘Energy Arbitration in Africa.’ Available at https://globalarbitrationreview.com/review/the-middle-eastern-and-african-arbitrationreview/2022/article/energy-arbitration-in-africa (Accessed on 06/12/2023).

Kaledzi. I., ‘How Could Ethiopia’s Dam Dispute Escalate?.’ Available at https://www.dw.com/en/how-could-ethiopias-dam-dispute-escalate/a-66798628 (Accessed on 06/12/2023).

McMahon. M., Shah. P., ‘The Rise of Renewable Energy Disputes and Arbitration.’ Available at https://www.stewartslaw.com/news/rise-of-renewable-energydisputes/ (Accessed on 02/12/2023).

Moses, ‘The Principles and Practice of International Commercial Arbitration’ 2nd Edition, 2017, Cambridge University Press.

Muigua. K., ‘Alternative Dispute Resolution and Access to Justice in Kenya.’ Glenwood Publishers Limited, 2015.

Muigua. K., ‘Fusion of Mediation and Other ADR Mechanisms with Modern Dispute Resolution in Kenya: Prospects and Challenges.’ Available at http://kmco.co.ke/wpcontent/uploads/2022/11/Fusion-of-Mediation-and-Other-ADRMechanisms-with-Modern-DisputeResolution-in-Kenya-Prospects-and-Challenges.pdf (Accessed on 06/12/2023).

Muigua. K., ‘Nurturing International Commercial Arbitration in Kenya.’ Available at https://kmco.co.ke/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/Nurturing-International-CommercialArbitration-in-Kenya.pdf (Accessed on 06/12/2023).

Muigua. K., ‘Promoting International Commercial Arbitration in Africa.’ Available at http://kmco.co.ke/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/PROMOTINGINTERNATIONAL-COMMERCIALARBITRATION-IN-AFRICA.pdf (Accessed on 06/12/2023).

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Nalule. V., Olawuyi. D., ‘Introduction to International Energy Arbitration Disputes in Africa.’ The Palgrave Handbook of Arbitration in the African Energy and Mining Sectors. Palgrave Studies in Energy Transitions. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. Available at https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-96183-1_1-1 (Accessed on 06/12/2023).

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Republic of Tanzania., ‘Model Product Sharing Agreement, 2013.’ Available at https://www.resourcecontracts.org/contract/ocds-591adf-8006566420/download/pdf (Accessed on 06/12/2023).

Republic of Uganda., ‘Model Production Sharing Agreement.’ Available at https://www.unoc.co.ug/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/MPSA.pdf (Accessed on 06/12/2023).

The Energy Charter Treaty., Available at https://www.energycharter.org/fileadmin /DocumentsMedia/ Legal/ECTC-en.pdf (Accessed on 06/12/2023).

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United Nations Conference on Trade and Development., ‘Commodities at a Glance: Special Issue on Access to Energy in Sub-Saharan Africa.’ Available at https://unctad.org/publication/commoditiesglance-special-issue-access-energy- subsaharanafrica#:~:text=Access%20to%20energy%20is%20defined,be%20 scaled%20up %20over%20time (Accessed on 04/12/2023).

United Nations Environment Programme., ‘Our Work in Africa.’ Available at https://www.unep.org/regions/africa/ourworkafrica#:~:text=The%20continent%20has%2040%20percent,internal%20renewable%20 fresh%20water%20source (Accessed on 04/12/2023).

United Nations., ‘Advancing SDG 7 in Africa.’ Available at https://sdgs.un.org/sites/default/files/2023- 06/2023%20Advancing%20SDG7%20in%20the%20Africa062923.pdf (Accessed on 04/12/2023).

United Nations., ‘Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.’ Available at https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20 Sustainabl e%20Development%20web.pdf (Accessed on 04/12/2023).

United Nations: United Nations Commission on International Trade Law.,’ Convention on International Settlement Agreements Resulting from Mediation.’ United Nations, New York, 2019., Available at https://uncitral.un.org/sites/uncitral.un.org/files/singapore_convention_eng.pdf (Accessed on 06/12/2023).

White & Case., ‘Investment Treaty Protection: How to Safeguard Foreign Investments in Africa.’ Available at https://www.whitecase.com/insight-ourthinking/africa-focus-winter-2022-investmenttreatyprotection #:~:text=As%20of%20October%202022%2C%20there%20were%20525%20BITs%20with%20African,OI% 20(Organisation%20of%20Islamic%20Cooperation) (Accessed on 06/12/2023).

News & Analysis

What is Carbon Markets?

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Written by Faith Nyambura Kabora, Advocate.

Carbon markets are a mechanism designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which are essentially gases that trap heat in the atmosphere and contribute to the negative impacts of climate change such as prolonged drought and rising of sea levels.

Carbon markets operate on the principle of putting a price on carbon emissions to create commercial/economic incentives for public and private entities to reduce their carbon footprint and invest in cleaner, sustainable practices.

Ideally, by putting a price on carbon, the carbon markets encourage sustainable environmental practices and help counties meet their emission reduction targets under international treaties, like the Paris Agreement, which Kenya is a signatory to. For a broader understanding, here is how a carbon market works;

  1. A Government establishes a limit on the total amount of greenhouse gas emission/pollution is allowed within its geographical limits;
  2. A grant, say permissions are created and distributed to eligible participants. This allowance represents the right to emit a certain amount of greenhouse gas;
  3. The participants can then buy and sell the allowances. Ideally, those who reduce their emissions more efficiently sell their surplus allowance to those who find it more challenging to reduce the emissions. If a company pollutes a lot, they need to buy more permissions, and if they do not pollute as much, they can sell their extra permissions.
  4. Entities are required to hold enough allowances to cover their actual emissions. If they exceed allocated allowances, they face penalties or, as expounded above, they buy additional allowances. This is the part where compliance becomes mandatory for all the key players.
  5. The price of the allowances fluctuates based on supply and demands and reflects the cost of emitting greenhouse gases. It is essentially like paying for pollution.

A carbon market plays a pivotal role in advancing climate action and promoting sustainable practices by incentivizing companies to reconsider their pollution practices, which can result in financial consequences as pollution becomes a costly endeavor. In Kenya, the introduction of a Carbon Market is imperative as the world confronts the dire consequences of climate change. Furthermore, it offers a commercial opportunity for investors considering the growing demand for environmentally friendly and carbon neutral products and services.

As mentioned above, the Paris Agreement is one of the most important international treaties dedicated strengthen global response to the negative impact of climate change. Ultimately, the Agreement’s goal is to motivate countries to limit global emissions and more importantly, to hold them accountable for their actions around reducing their carbon footprints.

Kenya as a signatory to the Paris Agreement has made significant contributions towards fulfilling the obligations under the Paris Agreement of limiting global temperature. The Climate Change (Amendment) Act 2023, nudges Kenya towards the realization of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement by introducing provisions and regulation of and participation in carbon markets.

As one of the top law firms in Nairobi, MMA Advocates is renowned for its proactive strategy and innovative legal lawyer advice. Our firm is committed to delivering strategic assistance that not only tackles current difficulties but also equips clients for future legal trends and advancements. As top lawyers in Nairobi Kenya, we take great satisfaction in our ability to combine in-depth legal knowledge with creative problem-solving. We keep a close eye on business trends and legal advancements to deliver timely guidance that enables our clients to make wise choices.

Our main goal as MMA Advocates is to establish long-lasting partnerships based on integrity, decency, and reliability. Since every client’s circumstance is unique, our best advocates in Kenya offer timely service and individualized attention at every stage of our collaboration. We make sure our clients are informed and empowered throughout their legal journey because we value openness and transparency in communication. In every case we take on, we are deeply committed to obtaining positive results and client satisfaction. This is just one aspect of our unwavering commitment to quality.

Whether you are a startup negotiating regulatory obstacles, an established corporation expanding, or a private citizen seeking legal assistance on personal problems, our Best Corporate Lawyers in Kenya are dedicated to becoming your legal partner. Our expertise include Commercial Litigation, Real Estate & Development, Fintech, Public Procurement (Public Private Partnerships), Project Finance, Public Law Litigation, Legal Audits & Compliance Advisory and Crisis Management.

We hope to arm you with the legal know-how and strategies needed to achieve your objectives. Our team enjoys taking on challenging legal matters with creativity and strategic understanding, protecting your rights and effectively achieving your goals. With a thorough comprehension of both regional laws and global norms, we are prepared to confidently and competently lead you through the complexities of corporate law.

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To find out more about how MMA Advocates in Nairobi Kenya can help you with your legal issues, get in touch with us. With our team of committed professionals and our standing as one of the top law firms in Nairobi, we are well-positioned to offer outcomes that surpass expectations and guarantee your success in a legal environment that is always changing.

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Review: Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Journal, Volume 12(3), 2024

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The Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Journal, Volume. 12, No.3, 2024 covers pertinent and emerging issues across all ADR mechanisms. This volume exposes our readers to a variety of salient topics and concerns in ADR including Building Peace in Africa, Public Policy as a Ground of Setting-Aside an Arbitral Award, Ethics, Integrity and Best Practice in Mediation, Accessing Justice in Kenya, Sports Arbitration, ESG Arbitration, Arbitration of Investor-State Dispute in Kenya, Article 159(2) of the Constitution of Kenya 2010 and issuance of interim measures by Arbitral Tribunals. The ADR Journal is a publication of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators, Kenya Branch. It provides a platform for scholarly debate and in-depth investigations into both theoretical and practical questions in Alternative Dispute Resolution.

The journal is edited by Professor of Law at the University of Nairobi, Faculty of Law Hon Prof. Kariuki Muigua, a distinguished law scholar, an accomplished mediator and arbitrator with a Ph.D. in law from the University of Nairobi and widespread training and experience in both international and national commercial arbitration and mediation. Prof. Muigua is a Fellow of Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (CIArb)- Kenya chapter and also a Chartered Arbitrator. He is a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, The Hague. He also serves as a member of the National Environment Tribunal. He has served as the Chartered Institute of Arbitrator’s (CIArb- UK) Regional Trustee for Africa from 2019 -2022.

In the paper “Building Peace in Africa through Alternative Dispute Resolution”  Hon. Prof. Kariuki Muigua critically discusses the role of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) mechanisms in peace building in Africa. The paper argues that ADR mechanisms can play a fundamental role in building peace in Africa. The paper further posits that ADR mechanisms are able to enhance sustainable peace in Africa due to their focus on reconciliation and restorative justice. It proposes solutions towards building peace in Africa through ADR.

In “the Emergence of the International Commercial Court: A Threat to Arbitration of Investor-State Dispute in Kenya” Marion Injendi Wasike and Dr. Kenneth W. Mutuma argue that the proliferation of international commercial courts, including their introduction in Kenya, necessitates a thorough analysis of their implications on arbitration’s role in investor-state disputes. By juxtaposing these emerging judicial entities against traditional arbitration paradigms, the discussion aims to unravel the complexities and potential shifts in dispute resolution preferences, highlighting the balance between innovation in legal adjudication and the sustenance of arbitration’s revered position in the international legal order.

Kamau Karori SC, MBS in “Striking a Balance: A Delicate Dance Between Sanctity and Scrutiny” notes that the continuing debate —between upholding the inviolability of arbitral awards and judicial intervention in cases of egregious injustice points to the need for delicate balancing between non-interference and the need to correct unmistakably unjust awards. The urgency of this discourse is informed by the need to prevent consumers or potential consumers of arbitration services opting to exclude arbitration clauses due to perceived deficiencies. The article seeks to navigate the genesis of the debate, delicately dissect the different perspectives, and draw comparisons with global practices.

The article “Reforming Kenya’s Law on Probation and Aftercare Services to Promote Alternative Dispute Resolution” by Michael Sang engages in a comprehensive exploration of Kenya’s Probation of Offenders Act within the context of the growing role of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) principles in the nation’s criminal justice system. Drawing inspiration from international legal instruments such as “The Beijing Rules,” “Bangkok Rules,” and “Tokyo Rules,” the study evaluates the Act’s provisions, strengths, and limitations. It concludes with a call for thoughtful reforms that align Kenya’s criminal justice system with international standards, emphasizing a balanced and compassionate approach to justice.

The “Upholding Ethics, Integrity and Best Practice in Mediation” by Hon. Prof. Kariuki Muigua, OGW critically discusses the need for standardization of mediation practice in Kenya by adopting best practices. It examines some of the challenges facing mediation practice in Kenya. It is also explores measures adopted towards fostering best practices in mediation at both the global and national level. The paper further suggests recommendations aimed at upholding ethics, integrity and best practice in mediation. In “Exploring the Role of Mediation in Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and Fostering Economic Growth in Kenya” Atundo Wambare offers an in-depth analysis of the use of mediation in promoting the growth of small and medium enterprises (SME’s). He makes recommendations on how best mediation can be harnessed as a tool for economic growth in Kenya.

James Njuguna and Nyamboga George Nyanaro in “Compulsory Resolution or Autonomy Erosion? The Debate on Mandatory Sports Arbitration delve into the contentious issue of mandatory sports arbitration, questioning its role as a potential future pathway for dispute resolution. Their research examines the implications of compulsory arbitration on athletes’ autonomy, juxtaposing it with the benefits of expedited dispute resolution.

Paul Ngotho in “Constitution of Kenya 2010 Article 159.2.(c): Ancestry, Anatomy, Efficacy & Legacy” traces the rather odd origin and everlasting effect of the often-cited Article 159.2.(c) of the Constitution of Kenya 2010. It acknowledges the central role played by two members of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators Kenya Branch, quietly and privately, away from the mainstream constitution making process. One of them chairman of the Branch, the other the Minister of Justice, National Cohesion and Constitutional Affairs.

David Onsare in “Navigating The ESG Maze: Emerging Trends in Arbitration and Corporate Accountability” embarks on a timely exploration of the dynamic interplay between Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) factors and arbitration, a field gaining critical importance in the realm of corporate accountability. By offering a comprehensive view of the complexities and practical implications of ESG in arbitration, the article serves as a crucial guide for legal professionals navigating the evolving landscape of corporate responsibility and arbitration. In “Public Policy as a Ground of Setting-Aside an Arbitral Award: Musings on the Centurion Engineers Civil Appeal Judgment”

Ibrahim Kitoo argues a case for upholding of public policy as a ground for the nonrecognition, non-enforcement and setting aside of an arbitral award in cases where to recognise and enforce such awards proves to be a clear violation of the law and against the public good. Juvenalis Ngowi in “Arbitral Tribunals: Do they have the power to issue interim measures during the proceedings?” discusses the powers of the Arbitral Tribunal to grant such orders and examines some procedural rules which empower arbitrators to issue such orders, the scope of those powers, and the factors to be considered when granting interim measures in the arbitral proceedings.

In “Examining the Efficacy of Mediation as A Tool for Accessing Justice in Kenya: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Perspectives” Murithi Antony undertakes a thorough examination of mediation as a form of ADR in the Kenyan context. He identifies opportunities arising from the integration of mediation into the country’s legal system and explores barriers impeding its widespread adoption. The article concludes with a resounding call to action for all stakeholders to champion the use of mediation collaboratively and proactively, given its proven efficacy in dispute resolution.

Kariuki Muigua & Company Advocates is a Top-Tier Kenyan law firm situated at the heart of Nairobi city in Kenya. We are a broad-based practice with a reputation for offering a full range of quality services to our domestic and international clients.

At KM&CO, we take pride in offering personalized attention to our diverse clientele. Our practice aspires to offer efficient and cost-effective legal solutions that meet our esteemed clients’ needs in a timely and competent manner.

KM&CO was founded in 1993 by the current senior Advocate, Dr. Kariuki Muigua. It is based in the Central Business District of Nairobi at the Pioneer Assurance House located opposite 7th August Bomb Blast Memorial Park enjoying the convenience of close proximity to major financial, commercial and governmental institutions.

We are open for consultations with our clients worldwide; we have lawyers on standby for 24 hours to cover diverse time zones that impact on our global clients.

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Way Forward in Applying Collaborative Approaches Towards Conflict Management

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By Hon. Prof. Kariuki Muigua, OGW, PhD, C.Arb, FCIArb is a Professor of Environmental Law and Dispute Resolution at the University of Nairobi, Member of Permanent Court of Arbitration, Leading Environmental Law Scholar, Respected Sustainable Development Policy Advisor, Top Natural Resources Lawyer, Highly-Regarded Dispute Resolution Expert and Awardee of the Order of Grand Warrior (OGW) of Kenya by H.E. the President of Republic of Kenya. He is the Academic Champion of ADR 2024, the African ADR Practitioner of the Year 2022, the African Arbitrator of the Year 2022, ADR Practitioner of the Year in Kenya 2021, CIArb (Kenya) Lifetime Achievement Award 2021 and ADR Publisher of the Year 2021 and Author of the Kenya’s First ESG Book: Embracing Environmental Social and Governance (ESG) tenets for Sustainable Development” (Glenwood, Nairobi, July 2023) and Kenya’s First Two Climate Change Law Book: Combating Climate Change for Sustainability (Glenwood, Nairobi, October 2023), Achieving Climate Justice for Development (Glenwood, Nairobi, October 2023), Promoting Rule of Law for Sustainable Development (Glenwood, Nairobi, January 2024) and Actualizing the Right to a Clean and Healthy Environment (Glenwood, Nairobi, March 2024)*

It is necessary to embrace and utilize collaborative approaches in managing conflicts. These techniques include mediation, negotiation, and facilitation. These mechanisms are effective in managing conflicts since they encourage parties to embrace and address disagreements through empathy and listening towards mutually beneficial solutions. Collaborative approaches also have the potential to preserve relationships, build trust, and promote long term positive change. They also ensure a win-win solution is found so that everyone is satisfied which creates the condition for peace and sustainability. These approaches are therefore ideal in managing conflicts. It is therefore important to embrace collaborative approaches in order to ensure effective management of conflicts.

In addition, it is necessary for third parties including mediators and facilitators to develop their skills and techniques in order to enhance the effectiveness of collaborative approaches towards conflict management. For example, it has correctly been observed that mediators and facilitators should listen actively and empathetically in order to assist parties to collaborate towards managing their dispute. Therefore, when a dispute arises, the first step should involve listening to all parties involved with an open mind and without judgment. This should entail active listening, which means paying attention to both verbal and nonverbal cues and acknowledging the emotions and perceptions involved.

It has been observed that by listening empathetically, a third party such as a mediator of facilitator can understand each person’s perspective and start to build a foundation for resolving the conflict through collaboration. In addition, while collaborating towards conflict management, it is necessary to encourage and help parties to focus on interests and not positions. It has been pointed out that focusing positions can result in a standstill which can delay or even defeat the conflict management process. However, by identifying and addressing the underlying interests parties can find common ground and collaborate towards coming up with creative solutions towards their conflict.

Mediators and facilitators should also assist parties to look for areas of agreement or shared goals. Identifying a common ground can build momentum and create a positive environment for resolving the conflict. Further, in order to ensure the effectiveness of collaborative approaches in conflict management, it is necessary to build strong collaboration. It has been asserted that strong collaboration can be achieved by establishing a shared purpose, cultivating trust among parties, encouraging active participation by all parties, and promoting effective communication.

Strong collaboration enables parties to develop trust between and among themselves and strengthen communication channels between the various parties. It also helps to generate inclusive solutions that arise from wider stakeholders’ views. Therefore while applying collaborative approaches, it is necessary for parties to foster strong collaboration by identifying common goals, building trust, ensuring that all stakeholders are involved, and communicating effectively in order to come up with win-win outcomes.

Finally, while embracing collaborative approaches in conflict management, it is necessary for parties to consider seeking help from third parties if need arises. For example, negotiation is always the first point of call whenever a conflict arises whereby parties attempt to manage their conflict without the involvement of third parties. It has been described as the most effective collaborative approach towards conflict management since it starts with an understanding by both parties that they must search for solutions that satisfy everyone.

It enables parties to a dispute to come together to openly discuss the issue causing tension, actively listen to each other, and come up with mutually satisfactory solutions. However, it has been correctly observed that negotiation may fail especially if the conflict is particularly complex or involves multiple parties due to challenges in collaborating. In such circumstances, where negotiation fails, parties should consider resorting to other collaborative approaches such as mediation and facilitation where they attempt to manage the conflict with the help of a third party. A mediator or facilitator can assist parties to collaborate and continue with the negotiations and ultimately break the deadlock.

*This is an extract from Kenya’s First Clean and Healthy Environment Book: Actualizing the Right to a Clean and Healthy Environment (Glenwood, Nairobi, January 2024) by Hon. Prof.  Kariuki Muigua, OGW, PhD, Professor of Environmental Law and Dispute Resolution, Senior Advocate of Kenya, Chartered Arbitrator, Kenya’s ADR Practitioner of the Year 2021 (Nairobi Legal Awards), ADR Lifetime Achievement Award 2021 (CIArb Kenya), African Arbitrator of the Year 2022, Africa ADR Practitioner of the Year 2022, Member of National Environment Tribunal (NET) Emeritus (2017 to 2023) and Member of Permanent Court of Arbitration nominated by Republic of Kenya and Academic Champion of ADR 2024. Prof. Kariuki Muigua is a foremost Environmental Law and Natural Resources Lawyer and Scholar, Sustainable Development Advocate and Conflict Management Expert in Kenya. Prof. Kariuki Muigua teaches Environmental Law and Dispute resolution at the University of Nairobi School of Law, The Center for Advanced Studies in Environmental Law and Policy (CASELAP) and Wangari Maathai Institute for Peace and Environmental Studies. He has published numerous books and articles on Environmental Law, Environmental Justice Conflict Management, Alternative Dispute Resolution and Sustainable Development. Prof. Muigua is also a Chartered Arbitrator, an Accredited Mediator, the Managing Partner of Kariuki Muigua & Co. Advocates and Africa Trustee Emeritus of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators 2019-2022. Prof. Muigua is a 2023 recipient of President of the Republic of Kenya Order of Grand Warrior (OGW) Award for his service to the Nation as a Distinguished Expert, Academic and Scholar in Dispute Resolution and recognized among the top 5 leading lawyers and dispute resolution experts in Band 1 in Kenya by the Chambers Global Guide 2024 and was listed in the Inaugural THE LAWYER AFRICA Litigation Hall of Fame 2023 as one of the Top 50 Most Distinguished Litigation Lawyers in Kenya and the Top Arbitrator in Kenya in 2023.

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Kariuki Muigua & Company Advocates is a Top-Tier Kenyan law firm situated at the heart of Nairobi city in Kenya. We are a broad-based practice with a reputation for offering a full range of quality services to our domestic and international clients.

At KM&CO, we take pride in offering personalized attention to our diverse clientele. Our practice aspires to offer efficient and cost-effective legal solutions that meet our esteemed clients’ needs in a timely and competent manner.

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