Connect with us

Lawyers

Hall of Fame Commercial Lawyers in Kenya 2023: George Kashindi

George Kashindi is one of the few Top Tax Lawyers in Kenya who can boast hands-on experience as a taxman (KRA) lawyer, tax defense lawyer and now as tax appeal judge (as Member of Tax Appeals Tribunal).

Published

on

George Kashindi, Partner at Munyao, Muthama & Kashindi Advocates and Member, Tax Appeals Tribunal

George Kashindi is an Advocate of the High Court of Kenya of 21 years standing and one of Kenya’s leading tax lawyers. He boasts exceptional experience in tax, dispute resolution, regulatory, compliance and governance audits, regulatory impact assessments, constitutional and judicial review, public procurement, employment and labour relations, energy and natural resources, corporate insolvency and data protection. He is ranked among Top Dispute Resolution Lawyers in Kenya by Chambers Global Guide 2023 and Legal500 EMEA and is recommended by World Tax and IFLR1000 as a leading lawyer in tax and financial services law respectively.

He is the Partner in charge of the Nairobi office of Munyao, Muthama & Kashindi (MMK) Advocates. George started his legal career at the well- known firm of Rachier and Amollo where he gained a wealth of experience in a broad spectrum of legal matters. Subsequent to leaving Rachier & Amollo, George trained at the Kenya Revenue Authority Training Institute for 2 years and thereafter worked at Kenya Revenue Authority as Senior Legal Counsel for 5 years gaining hands-on experience in tax enforcement and compliance.

This background has given George a very solid understanding of the tax policy and legislative framework. Over the years, he has gained broad experience in litigation, tax dispute resolution, tax investigations and prosecutions, interpretation of the tax statutes and advising on tax policy and legislation. He has acted in a number of jurisprudence setting tax matters in court and possesses a wealth of knowledge in dealings with senior revenue and treasury officials.

George is also renown as one of the leading experts in legal and governance audits in Kenya. He has led teams in conducting legal, regulatory and government audits for blue chip companies listed in the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE), leading corporates, parastatals and other government entities. George also advises clients on public procurement, NGOs and Charities law, employment and labour relations, energy and natural resources, corporate insolvency.

George has a solid understanding of the tax policy and legislative framework and has many years’ experience in litigation, tax dispute resolution, tax investigations and prosecutions, interpretation of the tax statutes and advising on tax policy and legislation. He has acted in a number of jurisprudence setting tax matters. He holds an LLM in Financial Services with a specialization in tax and is currently a Member of the Tax Appeals Tribunal. George is the Co-Author of Kashindis’ Digest of Employment Cases (Flamekeepers Publishing, Nairobi, 2020).

George Kashindi’s Legal Practice Highlights include:-

Legal, governance, compliance, regulatory audits.

  • Team leader in conducting legal, compliance and regulatory audits which entail  It reviewed the client’s internal policies, practices and operations of the governing bodies and various departments to assess their compliance with the relevant laws including the Constitution, the establishing  and regulating statutes and subsidiary legislation. The previous and existing clients include Safaricom, Post Bank, Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KenGen), National Hospital Insurance Fund, and Technical University of Mombasa, Kenya Literature Bureau, Institute of Certified Public Accountants, Post Office Savings Bank among others.
  • Team leader in reviewing the legal and policy frameworks to strengthen integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) in Kenya
  • Team leader of the corporate governance practice area and has been involved in reviewing clients’ corporate governance structures and giving advice on legal, compliance and governance requirements. He has offered tailor made presentations and training sessions to clients’ board members and senior executives on corporate governance and other applicable legal and compliance requirements.
  • Advised clients on risk assessment and implementation of risk mitigating measures relating but not limited to directors duties, anti-corruption/bribery, anti-money laundering among others.

Tax

  • Assisted a leading audit firm in challenging a tax assessment raised by KRA in excess ofKshs 600,000 million against an international NGO operating in the Kenya and the region. The case involved complex legal points relating to expatriate tax, installment tax, definition and meaning of residency and interpretation of a number of statutory provisions.
  • Acted for one of the largest Container Freight Terminals in Mombasa that had been shut down by the Commissioner of Customs Services after a huge assessment of tax. The case successfully challenged the Commissioner of Custom’s power to close the facility and addressed other complex customs legal issues.
  • Represented one of the largest private universities in successfully pursuing a waiver of tax penalties and interest resulting from an initial assessment of tax by KRA amounting to KShs. 70 million.
  • Represented a leading company operating in the horticultural sector in appealing a tax assessment of over Kshs 200 million.
  • Represented a leading Italian company headquartered in Rome Italy running a space research project in Malindi to successfully challenge enforcement action by KRA of freezing the company’s bank accounts. The case addressed developing jurisprudence of striking a proper balance between the enforcement powers of the tax man viv a vis the need to protect a tax payer from the risk of substantial hardship including total collapse due to enforcement action. The court was persuaded to set aside an earlier order for the client to furnish security of a substantial amount and granted an unconditional stay of enforcement action. The monetary exposure was over Kshs 160 million.
  • Represented a leading export trading company in challenging tax assessment in excess of Ksh 300 million and dealing with complex tax issues touching on various WTO rules including the non-discrimination principle, rules of origin, East African Common tariff classification, and an array of constitutional and administrative law issues.

Regulatory advisory and dispute resolution

  • Representing and advising an array of regulators of various sectors and public bodies on a wide range of issues and claims airing from their exercise of their regulatory and statutory mandates. Kenya Airports Authority, Communication Authority, Agriculture Food Authority, Energy Regulatory Commission, Kenya Forest Service, Engineers Board of Kenya, National Transport and Safety Authority, NGOs Coordination Board, Kenya Civil Aviation Authority, National Hospital Insurance Fund to name but a few.

Energy

  • Represented a regulator in the energy sector against representative/class action public interest and consumer protection related claims made against the regulator and other players in the sector concerning several issues touching on electric power billing tariffs among other issues.  The value of some of the matters in contention is over Kshs 10 billion.
  • Representing a regulator in the energy sector against a representative/class action public interest and consumer protection related claims made against the regulator and other government agencies touching on key issues in the energy sector such as power generation, power purchase agreements, deemed energy, financing of power generation projects, Government guarantees, electricity transmission and an array of constitutional issues. The value of the matters under consideration is over Kshs 100 billion.
  • Team leader in conducting a legal and regulatory audit of a leading player in the energy sector. The audit included visiting critical their installations across the country, reviewing local and international contractual agreements, advising on Power Purchase Agreements, reviewing board and management operations, identifying and advising on legal risks.  
  • Acted for a Government entity operating in the energy sector in responding to compliance summons issued by a County Government relating to their installations within the county.
  • Acted for a company operating in the geothermal sector in defending a contractual claim of substantial amount of money relating to a multi-lateral donor- funded project for drilling and extraction of steam through the innovative well-head technology.

Public Procurement

  • Represented a leading Chinese firm which was a successful bidder in a multi-billion donor funded project for the Water and Sanitation Improvement project awarded by one of the public bodies operating in the water sector, in successfully opposing a challenge instituted by a losing bidder before the Public Procurement Administrative Review Board. The matter involved key procurement issues and jurisprudence touching on among other things, locus standi of applicants in a joint venture.
  • Representing the same Chinese firm in separate proceedings instituted by a different bidder but relating to the same award. Acted for the firm both before the Administrative Review Board and the High Court. The cases addressed notable public procurement matters including the Board’s jurisdiction in disputes emanating from donor funded projects and projects the subject to negotiated grants.
  • Represented a leading supplier and retailer of tyres and accessories before the Public Procurement and Appeals Review Board in dispute relating to a multi-million tender awarded by a public body in based in Mombasa and operating in the ports sector. The challenge succeeded before the Board but was subsequently overturned on appeal to the High Court.

Non-Governmental and Charities

  • Retained by several charitable, not for profit and religious organisations on an array of issues ranging from registration processes and documentation, regulatory compliance, tax advice, labour law matters, court representation and advice on contracting processes. Such NGOs include but not limited to Helpage, International Republican Institute, Food For the Hungry among others.

Employment and labour relations

  • Represented and advised an array of clients drawn from various sectors in a wide range of employment and labour related matters including representations in court, drafting of employee contracts, drafting and reviewing polices and manuals, advice on termination, dismissals,  redundancies and restructuring, managing employee-exists, advice on collective bargaining and negotiations, secondment, outsourcing among others.

Continue Reading
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Lawyers

Irene Kiwool: My Track Record and Call to PACT for Better Nairobi LSK

Irene Kiwool is calling for a PACT towards a Progressive and an All-Inclusive LSK Nairobi Branch Bar.

Published

on

By

Irene Kiwool is running for LSK Nairobi Council Member 2024-2026 on PACK Agenda.

DownloadIrene Kiwool’s Manifesto for Nairobi LSK Council Member 2024-2026(PDF)

WHO IS IRENE KIWOOL?

I am an advocate with 14 years post admission experience and a partner at Muchemi & Co. Advocates. For the past 6 years, my unwavering dedication and commitment to the bar has been evident through active participation on several Nairobi Branch Committees. This engagement has not only sharpened my legal acumen but has also allowed me to make meaningful contributions and impact to our legal community. I believe it is this commitment and dedication to our legal practice that led to my nomination as the Commercial and Conveyancing Practitioner of the Year in 2022 and listed among the Top 100 Real Estate and Finance Lawyers in Kenya in 2023.

WHAT IS MY TRACK RECORD?

Dedicated Leadership and Service

I have served diligently on the following committees:

  • Lands Liaison Committee
  • Commercial Practice Committee
  • ICT and IP (KIPI) Liaison Committee
  • Judicial Review Bar -Bench Committee
  • Devolution and Law Reform Committee
  • Ardhisasa Technical committee

Legal Practice Protection and Reform

I have played a pivotal role in safeguarding the legal practice and spearheading key reforms that support our profession and protecting our bread and butter.  Notable contributions include:

  • The gazettement of the Regulations on Electronic Conveyancing (The Land Registration (Electronic Transactions) Regulations, 2020),
  • The gazettement of The Regulations on Extension and Renewal of Leases (Land Extension and Renewal of Leases) Rules, 20l7.)
  • Development of a comprehensive Conversion Manual, which guides practitioners on the process to convert Land Titles and Deeds issued under the repealed land laws.
  • The manual is available on the Ministry of Lands Website.

Proactive Advocacy for Efficient Systems

I have been at the forefront lobbying and driving for improvements on the Ardhisasa System, to enhance its user-friendliness, responsiveness, efficiency and effectiveness. Through my proactive engagements, we have achieved significant upgrades, unlocked key registrations at the Nairobi Registration Unit and facilitated the development and dissemination of training materials on the use of the Ardhisasa system.

NOTABLE UPGRADES:

  • Filing of Consolidated applications
  • Introduction of a Progress Status bar to track registration status
  • Reduced timelines for the registration of Foreign Accounts
  • Enhanced system functionalities including editing applications
  • Comprehensive upload capabilities for chargee’s covenants, previously limited to 500 words activation of several registration forms conducting
  • Searches without proprietor’s consent through an Advocate account for unconverted or unenumerated properties cleared by Ministry of Lands

UNLOCKED REGISTRATIONS 

  • Long -term leases through the Memorandum of Understanding between Ministry of Lands and LSK
  • Where modules are inactive registration is manual by seeking exemption from the Registrar
  • Manual registration for inactive modules by requesting for an exemption to register through the Chief Land Registrar
  • Transfers by Chargee
  • Deed of Variations of Charges
  • Replacement of lost Titles and reconstruction of the register.

WHY THE PACT AGENDA?

I am committed to honoring the PACT (Protect, Account, Champion and Track), by continuing to serve members, this time as a council member. With your vote, together, we can bring inclusivity, integrity, innovation and impactful change to our resident bar.

PROTECT  

  • Protect members bread and butter by prioritizing practice issues and defend against challenges from whatever source. Develop a proactive stance to anticipate and mitigate risks before they impact our members.
  • Lobby for the establishment of a Practice Forward Committee aimed at monitoring emerging challenges in the legal practice, focusing on the welfare of Advocates, the emerging areas of legal practice and recommending implementable solutions. This initiative would ensure that Advocates are well supported and equipped to navigate the evolving complexities of the legal field.
  • Lobby for creation of an online Nairobi Branch Members Directory that is publicly accessible, allowing Members of the public to easily locate and engage legal counsel thereby increasing visibility and accessibility for our members.
  • Lobby and develop a tracking mechanism to weed out masqueraders and unqualified persons through a justice multi- stakeholder approach

ACCOUNT

  • Advocate for Accountability and Transparency of Branch operations and financial affairs.
  • Lobby for the adoption and implementation of a stakeholder and institutional accountability tool to monitor and enhance service delivery across key partner institutions (the courts; the Land Registration Units, BRS, Ecitizen, KRA, Registrar of persons, Tribunals among other’s). This tool will aim to ensure transparency, responsiveness and efficiency, proactively addressing challenges and optimizing resource utilization Advocate for prudent utilization of Branch funds to maximize the benefits to our members.

CHAMPION

  • Champion and spearhead legal reforms that reflect current needs and future challenges with the aim to strengthen and grow members’ practice.
  • Champion for strategic networking engagements, collaboration and knowledge exchange.
  • Establish dynamic forums and platforms for members to leverage expertise and access valuable resources thus contributing to members individual growth, overall development and innovation within the legal practice.
  • Champion and spearhead the drafting and publication of a comprehensive manual that provides guidance on electronic conveyancing aiming to streamline and enhance conveyancing practice.

TRACK

  • Establish a tracking system to regularly assess the welfare support mechanisms in place, ensuring they effectively contribute to the progression and growth of members.
  • Track the effectiveness of the mentorship program and develop strategic policies to expand the pool of mentors and enhance the quality of mentorship.
  • Lobby for the establishment and implementation of a performance metric’s system to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of branch committees. This metrics will be reviewed periodically to foster continuous improvement.

CURRENT ROLES THAT ALIGN WITH THE PACT AGENDA

  1. Member of the Co -ordinating Committee that is tasked with the mandate to co-ordinate the review of the National Land Policy.
  2. Member of the Nairobi Lands Justice Working Group whose mandate is to identify the root causes and address systemic and endemic challenges in the administration of land justice in Nairobi County.
  3. Member at the Lands and Housing Sector Board Committee at KEPSA and public Policy and Advocacy Committee at KPDA.
  4. Member of the Kenya School of Law Mentorship programme.

Continue Reading

Lawyers

Njoki Mboce: I am Members Project for LSK President

Published

on

By

By Njoki Mboce for LSK President 2024-2026 Team

Today, LSK faces an existential threat from those who seek to compromise its mandate by aligning with the regime in ongoing attempts to undermine the place of the Law Society of Kenya (LSK) and erode the Rule of Law. This has the potential to regress the country to a state of impunity and dictatorship reminiscent of the past.

In such turbulent times, the LSK requires a leader who is resolute, decisive, and impartial. Harriet Njoki Mboce is this suitable leader, with a firm reputation, who will speak Truth to power in the face of encroaching dictatorship.

The actions of a candidate are a mirror of who they are, and what they will be in office. If a candidate wants the office at all costs, and abuses members’ trust to get there, they will have no integrity while in office. Harriet Njoki Mboce is unequivocally the LSK Members’ project. Boldly and firmly acting to defend Independence of the BAR, institutions, and the Rule of Law, she has maintained this commitment throughout her campaigns for President of LSK. This offers a strong basis to fearlessly champion members’ interests and protect the BAR from capture by the State and unscrupulous cartels.

Growing up, I dreamt of being a Navy Officer. I never in my wildest dreams imagined that I would one day be seeking the Presidency of an organisation previously led by impeccable names such as SC Gibson Kamau Kuria, SC Pheroze Nowrojee, SC Paul Muite, SC Hon Dr. Willy Mutunga (CJ Emeritus) and SC Raychelle Omamo, among others. It has taken resilience and a high dose of firm, and bold commitment to get here.

LSK requires a leader to withstand the pressure within and without, and to take the heat on behalf of the membership, whenever the Country and the Society’s living tenets come under threat. This resilience as a quality in the President of LSK enables me in a big way to see the wider horizon of the environment we operate in, to prepare for the storms and to boldly and firmly focus and act on our bigger mandate.

Come elections day, 29th February, 2024, I invite members to ask themselves: Which candidate shows real signs that they will not be corrupted, will run an accountable organisation and will sustain the moral and probity to place the LSK on a path of Independence? I humbly seek your vote to bring this desire home. Please vote for the Member’s project, Harriet Njoki Mboce, HSC for President of The Law Society of Kenya (2024-2026)

Continue Reading

Lawyers

Way Forward in Ensuring Just Transition in Climate Justice

Published

on

By

By Hon. Prof. Kariuki Muigua, OGW, PhD, C.Arb, FCIArb is a Professor of Environmental Law and Dispute Resolution at the University of Nairobi, Member of Permanent Court of Arbitration, Leading Environmental Law Scholar, Respected Sustainable Development Policy Advisor, Top Natural Resources Lawyer, Highly-Regarded Dispute Resolution Expert and Awardee of the Order of Grand Warrior (OGW) of Kenya by H.E. the President of Republic of Kenya. He is The African ADR Practitioner of the Year 2022, The African Arbitrator of the Year 2022, ADR Practitioner of the Year in Kenya 2021, CIArb (Kenya) Lifetime Achievement Award 2021 and ADR Publisher of the Year 2021 and Author of the Kenya’s First ESG Book: Embracing Environmental Social and Governance (ESG) tenets for Sustainable Development” (Glenwood, Nairobi, July 2023) and Kenya’s First Two Climate Change Law Book: Combating Climate Change for Sustainability (Glenwood, Nairobi, October 2023), Achieving Climate Justice for Development (Glenwood, Nairobi, October 2023) and Promoting Rule of Law for Sustainable Development (Glenwood, Nairobi, January 2024)*

In order to embrace just transition, it is imperative to build a climate resilient and integrated sustainable energy sector in Africa and other regions which are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. It has been observed that Africa has rich energy and mineral resources including lithium, graphite, cobalt, nickel, copper, and rare earth minerals all of which provide new market opportunities for the green transition. This coupled with the Continent’s renewable energy potential means that Africa has the capacity to achieve just transition to an equitable and inclusive low-carbon future.

It has correctly been observed that Africa has immense potential for renewable energy including wind, solar, hydro, bioenergy, ocean tidal waves, geothermal among other renewables. It has been pointed out that in order to ensure delivery of global climate change mitigation goals, developing countries will need to drive investment towards building a renewable energy infrastructure that can serve their populations into the future and not drive further climate breakdown.

A just transition promotes the shift towards renewable sources of energy and sustainable practices, reducing the reliance on fossil fuels and mitigating the impacts of climate change. It is therefore important for developing countries to embrace just transition by promoting renewable sources of energy in order to achieve climate justice and energy justice. It is also essential to integrate just transition initiatives in national climate action plans and adaptation plans.

It has been observed that the importance of just transition is increasingly being recognized by governments worldwide as they cite just transition principles in their short- and long-term climate plans known as Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and Long-Term Strategies (LTSs). Embedding just transition strategies within short and long term climate plans like NDCs and LTS, can help governments stay focused on the urgent task at hand of rapid decarbonization, while also striving for fair and inclusive outcomes.

In Kenya, the National Climate Change Action Plan enshrines the principles of just transition and seeks to foster an equitable and inclusive climate response which ensures an electricity supply mix based mainly on renewable energy that is resilient to climate change and promotes energy efficiency; encourage the transition to clean cooking that reduces the demand for biomass; and reduced exposure and vulnerability of the country, and especially of the poor and vulnerable groups, to climate disasters and shocks. It is therefore necessary for countries to incorporate just transition initiatives in their NDCs and LTSs in order to achieve efficient climate outcomes. This will demonstrate commitment towards achieving climate justice while securing public support for ambitious and stronger climate action.

Further, there is need to unlock and align climate finance with the idea of just transition. It has been argued that governments have an obligation to mobilize sustainable, affordable, predictable and long-term finance from public and private, domestic and international sources, and aligning public and private financial flows and public procurement to the objectives of a just transition. According to the UNFCCC, increased climate finance is needed to effectively address the challenges and seize the opportunities of just transitions in country-specific and sector-specific pathways considering the local circumstances.

Climate finance has been identified as a key tool towards fostering climate justice since it recognizes the inequalities between countries with developing countries being the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change and thus requiring financial resources to aid their mitigation and adaptation programmes86. It is therefore imperative for all countries and especially developing countries to unlock climate finance from multiple sources including public, private and multilateral sources in order to achieve just transition by addressing the socio-economic impacts of climate change and addressing climate inequalities more broadly through efficient mitigation and adaptation strategies.

In addition, it is necessary to embrace and enhance technology transfer between developed and developing countries in order to enhance the capacity of the former to later to embrace just transition. It has been pointed out that developing countries have vast renewable potential, but are unable to realize it as long as they are constrained by lack of access to green technologies. Without access to environmentally sound technologies, developing countries in particular least developed countries, will not be able to meet mitigation targets and will be forced to continue using carbon-intensive technologies resulting in climate and sustainability concerns.

Transferring low-carbon and green technologies to those most at risk of climate crisis is critical, among a range of other measures, to ensure that people can respond and adapt to the threat of climate change. Technology transfer can support the climate agenda in developing countries for energy and other sectoral transitions.

The Paris Agreement acknowledges the importance of technology for the implementation of mitigation and adaptation actions and urges countries to promote and facilitate enhanced action on technology development and transfer in order to support the implementation of the Agreement. It is thus pertinent for developed countries to promote transfer of low-carbon technologies including green technologies in developing countries in order to support climate action in such countries.

Developing countries should on the other hand remove barriers to green technology transfer including Intellectual Property barriers and revise bilateral and multilateral trade agreements that present a barrier to transfer initiatives. Finally, there is need to foster capacity building in order to effectively realize just transition. One of the key challenges in achieving climate justice through just transition has been identified to be inadequate national capacity on just transition initiatives.

Capacity building can strengthen individual and institutional capacities on just transition in key areas such as policymaking, cross-sectoral coordination, and stakeholder participation. It can further enhance the ability of the public to be involved in key decisions in the journey towards just transition. It has been pointed out that participation and engagement are crucial for achieving just sustainability transitions.

Capacity building is therefore integral in achieving just transition. It is thus necessary for all countries and especially developing states to strengthen their legal, institutional, technical, human, social and financial capacity in order to embrace just transition. The above among other measures are necessary in order to achieve equitable and inclusive just transition towards climate justice.

*This is an extract from the Book: Promoting Rule of Law for Sustainable Development (Glenwood, Nairobi, January 2024) by Hon. Prof.  Kariuki Muigua, OGW, PhD, Professor of Environmental Law and Dispute Resolution, Senior Advocate of Kenya, Chartered Arbitrator, Kenya’s ADR Practitioner of the Year 2021 (Nairobi Legal Awards), ADR Lifetime Achievement Award 2021 (CIArb Kenya), African Arbitrator of the Year 2022, Africa ADR Practitioner of the Year 2022, Member of National Environment Tribunal (NET) Emeritus (2017 to 2023) and Member of Permanent Court of Arbitration nominated by Republic of Kenya. Prof. Kariuki Muigua is a foremost Environmental Law and Natural Resources Lawyer and Scholar, Sustainable Development Advocate and Conflict Management Expert in Kenya. Prof. Kariuki Muigua teaches Environmental Law and Dispute resolution at the University of Nairobi School of Law, The Center for Advanced Studies in Environmental Law and Policy (CASELAP) and Wangari Maathai Institute for Peace and Environmental Studies. He has published numerous books and articles on Environmental Law, Environmental Justice Conflict Management, Alternative Dispute Resolution and Sustainable Development. Prof. Muigua is also a Chartered Arbitrator, an Accredited Mediator, the Managing Partner of Kariuki Muigua & Co. Advocates and Africa Trustee Emeritus of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators 2019-2022. Prof. Muigua is a 2023 recipient of President of the Republic of Kenya Order of Grand Warrior (OGW) Award for his service to the Nation as a Distinguished Expert, Academic and Scholar in Dispute Resolution and recognized among the top 5 leading lawyers and dispute resolution experts in Band 1 in Kenya by the Chambers Global Guide 2024 and was listed in the Inaugural THE LAWYER AFRICA Litigation Hall of Fame 2023 as one of the Top 50 Most Distinguished Litigation Lawyers in Kenya and the Top Arbitrator in Kenya in 2023.

References

Africa Union., ‘Agenda 2063: The Africa we Want.’ Available at https://au.int/sites/default/files/documents/33126- docframework_document_book.pdf (Accessed on 29/11/2023).

African Development Bank Group., ‘Just Transition Initiative to Address Climate Change in the African Context.’ Available at https://www.afdb.org/en/topics-andsectors/initiatives-partnerships/climate-investment-funds-cif/just-transitioninitiative (Accessed on 29/11/2023).

Climate Policy., ‘Just Transition and Climate Justice.’ Available at https://www.tandfonline.com/journals/tcpo20/collections/Just-Transition-andClimate-Justice (Accessed on 29/11/2023).

Colenbrander. S et al., ‘Using Climate Finance to Advance Climate Justice: The Politics and Practice of Channeling Resources to the Local Level.’ Climate Policy, 2017.

European Commission., ‘The Just Transition Mechanism: Making Sure no One is Left Behind.’ Available at https://commission.europa.eu/strategy-and-policy/priorities2019-2024/european-green-deal/finance-and-green-deal/just-transition-mechanism_en (Accessed on 29/11/2023).

European Environment Agency., ‘The Case for Public Participation in Sustainability Transitions.’ Available at https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/the-case-forpublic-participation (Accessed on 29/11/2023).

Giles, M., ‘The Principles of Climate Justice at CoP27.’ Available at https://earth.org/principlesofclimatejustice/#:~:text=That%20response%20should %20be%20based,the %20consequences%20of%20clim ate%20change (Accessed on 28/11/2023).

Government of Kenya., ‘National Climate Change Action Plan (Kenya): 2018-2022.’ Nairobi: Ministry of Environment and Forestry (2018)., Available at https://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/8737.pdf (Accessed on 29/11/2023).

International Institute for Sustainable Development., ‘Rethinking Technology Transfer to Support the Climate Agenda.’ Available at https://sdg.iisd.org/commentary/guest-articles/rethinking-technology-transfer-to-supportthe-climate-agenda/ (Accessed on 29/11/2023).

International Labour Organization., ‘Frequently Asked Questions on Just Transition.’ Available at https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/greenjobs/WCMS_824102/lang–en/index.htm (Accessed on 29/11/2023).

International Organization of Employers., ‘Climate Change and Just Transition.’ Available at https://www.ioe-emp.org/policy-priorities/climate-change-and-just-transitions (Accessed on 29/11/2023).

Kemei. N., ‘Navigating the Path of Just Transition: Kenya’s Sustainable Future.’ Available at https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/navigating-path-just-transitionkenyas-sustainable-future-naomikemei/?utm_source=share&utm_medium=member_android&utm_campaign=share _via (Accessed on 29/11/2023).

Lee. S., ‘Unpacking Just Transition: What is it and How Can We Achieve it in Africa?.’ Available at https://climatepromise.undp.org/news-and-stories/unpacking-justtransition-what-it-and-how-can-we-achieve-itafrica?gad_source=1&gclid=EAIaIQobChMI7ufGuYrpggMVboVoCR2gtAn3EAAYASAAE gL8VvD_BwE (Accessed on 29/11/2023).

McCauley. D., & Heffron. R., ‘Just Transition: Integrating Climate, Energy and Environmental Justice.’ Energy Policy., Volume 119, 2018, pp 1-7.

Monica. T & Bronwyn. L., ‘Community Lawyering and Climate Justice: A New Frontier.’ Alternative Law Journal (47) 3 pp 199-203.

Muigua. K., ‘Achieving Sustainable Development, Peace and Environmental Security.’ Glenwood Publishers Limited, 2021.

Muigua. K., ‘Fostering Climate Justice for Sustainable Development.’ Available at https://kmco.co.ke/wp-content/uploads/2023/07/Fostering-Climate-Justice-forSustainable- Development.pdf (Accessed on 28/11/2023).

Newell. P., ‘Toward Transformative Climate Justice: An Emerging Research Agenda.’ WIREs Climate Change., Volume 12, Issue 6 (2021).

Oxfam., ‘Climate Justice.’ Available at https://www.oxfam.org.au/what-wedo/climate-justice/ (Accessed on 28/11/2023).

Partnership for Action on Green Economy., ‘Argentina’s Capacity Building on Green Jobs and Just Transition.’ Available at https://www.un-page.org/news/argentinascapacity-building-on-green-jobs-and-just-transition/ (Accessed on 29/11/2023).

Ramsey County., ‘On climate justice: Climate Change and Environmental Justice.’ Available at https://www.ramseycounty.us/content/climate-justice-climate-changeand-environmentaljustice#:~:text= Climate%20Justice%20is%20a%20subset,the%20impacts%20of%20cli mate%20change (Accessed on 28/11/2023).

Schlosberg. D & Collins. L., ‘From Environmental to Climate Justice: Climate Change and the Discourse of Environmental Justice.’ WIREs Clim Change, 2014.

Smith. J., ‘Global Climate Justice Activism: “The New Protagonists” and their Projects for a Just Transition.’ Available at https://web.archive.org/web/20190429063257id_/http://dscholarship.pitt.edu/ 35560/1/Smith%20and%20Patterson%20Unequal%20Exchange%20Volume%20New%20Protagonists%2 0DScholarship.pdf (Accessed on 29/11/2023).

Sultana. F., ‘Critical Climate Justice.’ Available at https://www.farhanasultana.com/wp-content/uploads/Sultana-Critical-climatejustice.pdf (Accessed on 28/11/2023).

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development., ‘A Global Just Transition: Climate and Development Goals in a World of Extreme Inequalities.’ Available at https://unctad.org/system/files/non-officialdocument/UNCTAD_Just_Transition_BACKGROUND _NOTE_COP27.pdf (Accessed on 29/11/2023).

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs., ‘Forum on Climate Change and Science and Technology Innovation.’ Available at https://www.un.org/en/desa/forum-climatechangeandscience-and-technologyinnovation (Accessed on 28/11/2023).

United Nations Development Programme., ‘Climate Change is a Matter of Justice – Here’s Why.’ Available at https://climatepromise.undp.org/news-andstories/climate-change-matter-justice-heres-why (Accessed on 28/11/2023).

United Nations Development Programme., ‘What is just transition? And why is it important?.’ Available at https://climatepromise.undp.org/news-and-stories/whatjust-transition-and-why-it-important (Accessed on 28/11/2023).

United Nations Environment Programme., ‘Climate Justice.’ Available at https://leap.unep.org/en/knowledge/glossary/climatejustice#:~:text=Climate%20justice%20is%20a%20term,environmental%20or%20physi cal%20in%20nature. (Accessed on 28/11/2023).

United Nations Environment Programme., ‘Climate Justice.’ Available at https://leap.unep.org/knowledge/glossary/climate-justice (Accessed on 28/11/2023).

United Nations Environment Programme., ‘Responding to Climate Change.’ Available at https://www.unep.org/regions/africa/regional-initiatives/responding-climatechange (Accessed on 28/11/2023).

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change., ‘Financing Fair, Inclusive and Just Transitions to a Sustainable Future.’ Available at https://unfccc.int/news/financing-fair-inclusive-and-just-transitions-to-asustainable-future (Accessed on 29/11/2023).

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change., ‘Leaving No One Behind in the Transition Towards a Low-Carbon Economy.’ Available at https://unfccc.int/news/leaving-no-one-behind-in-the-transition-towards-a-lowcarbon-economy (Accessed on 29/11/2023).

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change., ‘Paris Agreement.’ Available at https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/english_paris_agreement.pdf (Accessed on 28/11/2023).

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change., ‘Views on Different Elements of the Work Programme on Just Transition Pathways Referred to in Paragraph 52 of Decision 1/CMA.4.’ https://www4.unfccc.int/sites/SubmissionsStaging/Documents/202309181045— ITF_SLOCAT_JTWP%20 submission.pdf (Accessed on 29/11/2023).

United Nations General Assembly., ‘Transforming Our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.’ 21 October 2015, A/RES/70/1.

United Nations., ‘Climate Action.’ Available at https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/climate-action/ (Accessed on 28/11/2023).

United Nations., ‘What is Climate Change?’ Available at https://www.un.org/en/climatechange/what-is-climate-change (Accessed on 28/11/2023).

Continue Reading

Trending